Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Sixth Edition
Analytical chemistry today is almost entirely instrumental analytical chemistry and it is performed by many scientists and engineers who are not chemists. Analytical instrumentation is crucial to research in molecular biology, medicine, geology, food science, materials science, and many other fields. While it is true that it is no longer necessary to have almost artistic skills to obtain accurate and precise analytical results using instrumentation, the instruments should not be considered “black boxes” by those using them. The well-known phrase “garbage in, garbage out” holds true for analytical instrumentation as well as computers. We hope this book serves to provide users of analytical instrumentation with an understanding of their instruments.
In keeping with the earlier editions of this text, the book is designed for teaching undergraduates and those with no analytical chemistry background how modern analytical instrumentation works and what the uses and limitations of analytical instrumentation are. Mathematics is kept to a minimum. No background in calculus, physics, or physical chemistry is required. All major fields of modern instrumentation are covered, including applications of each type of instrumental technique. Each chapter includes discussion of the fundamental principles underlying each technique, detailed descriptions of the instrumentation and a large number of applications. Each chapter includes an updated bibliography and new problems and most chapters have suggested experiments appropriate to the technique.
This edition has been completely rewritten, revised, and expanded. To achieve this, the previous approach of having each chapter be self-contained has been abandoned; repetition has been reduced to a minimum so that more topics could be covered in more detail. The topics of chromatography and mass spectrometry have been greatly expanded when compared with the 5th edition to better reflect the predominance of chromatography and mass spectrometry instrumentation in modern laboratories. The equally important topic of NMR has been refocused on FTNMR and expanded to included 13C and 2D NMR spectral interpretation.
A unique feature of this text is the combination of instrumental analysis with organic spectral interpretation (IR, NMR, and MS). The NMR, IR, and MS are all new, courtesy of Bio-Rad Laboratories, Informatics Division (IR), Aldrich Chemical Company (NMR), and one of the authors (MS), and were obtained on modern instruments, to reflect what students will encounter in modern laboratories. The use of spreadsheets for performing calculations has been introduced with examples. Reflecting the ubiquitous nature of the Internet, we have included large numbers of instrument manufacturers’ websites, which contain extensive resources for interested students.
Sampling, sample handling, and storage and sample preparation methods are extensively covered, and modern methods such as accelerated solvent extraction, solid phase microextraction (SPME), and microwave techniques are included. The NMR chapter is focused on the current technique of FTNMR. Proton, 13C, 2D NMR are covered including spectral interpretation. The NMR spectra presented are from a 300 MHz NMR instrument. Instrumentation, the analysis of liquids and solids, and applications of NMR are discussed in detail. A section on hyphenated NMR techniques is included, along with an expanded section on MRI. The IR instrumentation section is focused on FTIR instrumentation. Absorption, emission, and reflectance spectroscopy are discussed, as is FTIR microscopy. Near-IR instrumentation and applications are presented. Coverage of Raman spectroscopy includes resonance Raman, surface-enhanced Raman, and Raman microscopy. Chemical imaging is described. The section on IR spectral interpretation has been greatly expanded and all new spectra are presented. UV and visible spectroscopy includes innovations such as flowthrough sample holders and fiber optic probes. UV absorption spectral interpretation for organic molecules is covered in depth. Applications described include spectrophotometric titrations and spectroelectrochemistry. Nephelometry, turbidimetry, fluorescence, and phosphorescence are described in detail, including instrumentation and applications. The techniques of thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis have been added to the chapter on Thermal Analysis.
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