Theories of Personality 11th Edition

Theories of Personality 11th Edition PDF

Author: Duane P. Schultz and Sydney Ellen Schultz

Publisher: Cengage Learning


Publish Date: January 1, 2016

ISBN-10: 9781305652958

Pages: 512

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

Each edition of a textbook must be as vital, dynamic, and responsive to change as the field it covers. To remain an effective teaching instrument, it must reflect the development of the field and continue to challenge its readers. We have seen the focus of personality study shift from global theories, beginning with Sigmund Freud’s 19th-century psychoanalytic theory of neuroses, to 21st-century explorations of more limited personality facets or dimensions. And we have seen the basis of personality exploration change from case studies of emotionally disturbed persons to more scientifically based research with diverse populations. Contemporary work in the field reflects differences in gender, age, and sexual orientation as well as ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural heritage.

New and Expanded Coverage

New biographical material has been included for the theorists, to suggest how the development of their theory may have been influenced by events in their personal and professional lives. This approach shows students that the development of science through theory and research is not always totally objective. It may also derive from intuition and personal experience later refined and extended by more rational, analytic processes. Social and cultural influences on the theorists’ beliefs about human nature are also described.

The sections on personality research have been updated with nearly 400 new references to maintain the emphasis on current issues. Research findings have been summa-rized throughout the text in “Highlights” boxes; this feature presents bullet point lists to help the student organize and compare the results of research studies.
Some of the topics with new and expanded coverage include the following:

•Do we present our true selves on social media? How does the use of social media influence our personality? How does our personality influence our use of social media? Do selfies show the real you?
•Updated work on the MMPI, the Rorschach, and the Thematic Apperception Test.
•The Mechanical Turk—a new way to conduct personality research online.
•New findings on the Freudian concepts of ego resilience, the Oedipus complex, and defense mechanisms. New findings on dreams, and the use of computers to interpret dreams.
•Social companion robots to facilitate psychoanalysis.
•Research on Jung’s Psychological Types conducted in Arab cultures.
•Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of neglect in childhood.
•New findings on Adler’s concept of birth order.
•Over 30 new studies on Erikson’s concepts of ego identity, gender preference, virtual ethnic identity, gender differences in toy preferences, and his stages of development.
•Cultural differences from Allport’s work extended to the facial expression of emotions.
•More on the five-factor model of personality and the Dark Triad—an approach that includes narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy.
•The Smartphone Basic Needs Scale—a self-report inventory designed to measure how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be satisfied by smartphone use.

•New research findings on self-efficacy and locus of control.
•Techniques to measure sensation seeking. The relationship between sensation seeking and cyberbullying.
•More on Seligman’s life and his development of positive psychology. Defining and finding happiness. The concept of flourishing. And how learned helplessness was used in developing techniques of torture in the war on terror.

Organization of the Text

The eleventh edition of Theories of Personality retains its orientation toward undergraduate students who have had little previous exposure to personality theories. Our purpose is to reach out to beginning students and ease their task of learning about the study of personality. We have chosen theorists who represent psychoanalytic, neopsychoanalytic, lifespan, genetics, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, and social-learning approaches, as well as clinical and experimental work. The concluding chapter reviews these perspectives that describe personality development and suggests ways to help students draw conclusions and achieve closure from their studies.
Each theory in the text is discussed as a unit. Although we recognize the value of an issues or problems approach that compares theories on specific points, we believe that the issues-oriented book is more appropriate for higher-level students. The theories-oriented text makes it easier for beginning students to grasp a theory’s essential concepts and overall flavor. We try to present each theory clearly, to convey its most important ideas, assumptions, definitions, and methods. We discuss each theorist’s methods of assessment and empirical research and offer evaluations and reflections. Except for placing Freud first in recognition of his chronological priority, we have not arranged the theories in order of perceived importance. Each theory is placed in the perspective of competing viewpoints.

A Note on Diversity
The first person to propose a comprehensive theory of the human personality was Sig-mund Freud, a 19th-century clinical neurologist who formulated his ideas while treating patients in Vienna, Austria. His work, called psychoanalysis, was based largely on sessions with wealthy White European women who came to him complaining of emotional distress and disturbing thoughts and behaviors. From his observations of their progress, or lack of it, he offered a theory to explain everyone’s personality. Freud’s system was important for the concepts he proposed—many of which are now part of popular culture—as well as for the opposition he provoked, inspiring other theorists to examine and promote their own ideas to explain personality.

Today, personality theorists and researchers recognize that an explanation based on a small, homogeneous segment of the population cannot be applied to the diverse groups of people sharing space in our world. The situation is similar in medicine. Medical researchers recognize, for example, that some medications and treatments appropriate for young adults are not suitable for children or elderly people. Diseases prevalent in certain ethnic groups are rare in others, requiring differences in medical screening and testing for diverse populations. Contemporary personality theory strives to be inclusive, studying the influences of age, gender, race, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and child-rearing practices. We see examples of this diversity throughout the text.

For the student, we offer chapter outlines, summaries, research highlights, review questions, annotated reading lists, margin glossary terms, a cumulative glossary, tables and figures, a reference list, and referrals to relevant Web sites.
For instructors, the instructor’s manual with test bank has been thoroughly revised and offers lecture outlines, ideas for class discussion, projects, useful web links, and test items. The test bank is available in digital formats. PowerPoint Lecture Slides and electronic transparencies are available on eBank. The transparencies feature select figures and tables from the text loaded into Microsoft PowerPoint. Contact your local sales representative for details.
Duane P. Schultz Sydney Ellen Schultz

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