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Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)



Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101) PDF

Author: Paul Kleinman

Publisher: Adams Media

Genres:

Publish Date: September 18, 2012

ISBN-10: 1440543909

Pages: 288

File Type: EPub

Language: English

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Book Preface

psyche—The Greek word for “spirit, soul, and breath”

logia—The Greek word for “the study of something”

Psychology is the study of mental and behavioral processes. Essentially, those who work in the field of psychology try to give meaning to the questions, “What makes you tick?” and “How do you see the world?” These very simple ideas encompass many different and complicated topics, including emotions, thought processes, dreams, memories, perception, personality, illness, and treatment.

While the roots of psychology date back to the philosophers of Ancient Greece, it wasn’t until 1879, when German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt created the first laboratory completely devoted to the study of psychology, that the field really began to take off. Since then, psychology has expanded exponentially into a truly diverse science, often overlapping with other types of scientific studies such as medicine, genetics, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, biology, and even subjects like sports, history, and love.

So put on your thinking cap, make yourself comfortable (perhaps recline on a couch), and prepare to be enlightened; it’s time to start learning about yourself in ways you never knew possible. Whether this book is a refresher course or you’re learning all of this for the very first time, let’s begin. Welcome to Psych 101.

Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia, on September 14th, 1849. The son of the village priest, Pavlov originally studied theology until 1870, when he abandoned his religious studies and attended the University of St. Petersburg to study physiology and chemistry.

From 1884 to 1886, Pavlov studied under renowned cardiovascular physiologist Carl Ludwig and gastrointestinal physiologist Rudolf Heidenhain. By 1890, Pavlov had become a skilled surgeon and took an interest in the regulation of blood pressure. Without the use of any anesthesia, Pavlov was able to almost painlessly insert a catheter into a dog’s femoral artery and record the impact that emotional and pharmacological stimuli had on blood pressure. However, Pavlov’s most influential research with dogs—classical conditioning—was yet to come.

From 1890 to 1924, Ivan Pavlov worked at the Imperial Medical Academy as a professor of physiology. In his first ten years at the academy, he began to turn his attention towards the correlation between salivation and digestion. Through a surgical procedure, Pavlov was able to study the gastrointestinal secretions of an animal during its life span within relatively normal conditions; and he conducted experiments to show the relationship between autonomic functions and the nervous system. This research led to the development of Pavlov’s most important concept, the conditioned reflex. By 1930, Pavlov had begun using his research on conditioned reflexes to explain human psychoses.

Doctoral Definitions

CONDITIONED REFLEX: A response that becomes associated with a previously unrelated stimulus as a result of pairing the stimulus with another stimulus normally yielding the response.

Though he was praised and supported by the Soviet Union, Pavlov was an outspoken critic of the government’s Communist regime and even denounced the government publicly in 1923, following a trip to the United States. When, in 1924, the government expelled the sons of priests at the former Imperial Medical Academy (which was then known as the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad), Pavlov, the son of a priest himself, resigned from his position as professor. Dr. Ivan Pavlov died on February 27th, 1936, in Leningrad.


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