Principles of Instrumental Analysis 7th Edition
Today, there is a wide and impressive array of powerful and elegant tools for collecting qualitative and quantitative information about the composition and structure of matter. Students of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, geology, the life sciences, forensic science, and environmental science need to develop an understanding of these instrumental tools and their applications to relevant analytical problems in these fields. This book is designed to meet the needs of these students and other users of analytical instruments.
When instrument users are familiar with the fundamental principles underlying modern analytical instrumentation, they can make appropriate choices and efficient use of these measurement tools. For any given analytical problem, a seemingly bewildering number of alternative methods exist for obtaining the desired information. By understanding the advantages and limitations of the various tools, suitable choices can be made, and the user can be attuned to limitations in sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. In addition, users of instrumental methods should be aware of the various techniques for calibrating and standard-izing instruments, and validating the measurements made. It is therefore our objective to give readers a thorough introduction to the principles of instrumental analysis, including spectroscopic, electrochemical, chromatographic, radiochemical, thermal, and surface analytical methods. By carefully studying this text, readers will discover the types of instruments that are available and their strengths and limitations.
ORGANIZATION OF THIS EDITION
This text is organized in sections similar to the sixth edition. After the brief introductory chapter, the book is divided into six sections.
Section 1 contains four chapters on basic electrical circuits, operational amplifiers, digital electronics and computers, signals, noise, and signal-to-noise enhancement.
Section 2 comprises seven chapters devoted to various atomic spectrometric methods, including an introduction to spectroscopy and spectroscopic instrumentation, atomic absorption, atomic emission, atomic mass spectrometry, and X-ray spectrometry.
Section 3 treats molecular spectroscopy in nine chapters that describe absorption, emission, luminescence, infrared, Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and surface analytical methods.
Section 4 consists of four chapters that treat elec-troanalytical chemistry, including potentiometry, coulometry, and voltammetry.
Section 5 contains ﬁve chapters that discuss analytical separation methods including gas and liquid chromatography, supercritical ﬂuid chromatography, electrophoresis, and ﬁeld-ﬂow fractionation.
Section 6 consists of four chapters devoted to miscellaneous instrumental methods with emphasis on thermal, radiochemical, and automated methods.
A chapter on particle size analysis is also included in this final section.
Since the first edition of this text appeared in 1971, the field of instrumental analysis has grown so large and diverse that it is impossible to treat all of the modern instrumental techniques in a one- or even two-semester course. Also, instructors have differing opinions on which techniques to discuss and which to omit in their courses. Because of this, we have included more material in this text than can be covered n a single instrumental analysis course, and as a result, this comprehensive text will also be a valuable reference for years to come. An important advantage of organizing the material into sections is that instructors have flexibility in picking and choosing topics to be included in reading assignments. Thus, as in the previous edition, the sections on atomic and molecular spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and chromatography begin with introductory chapters that precede the chapters devoted to specific methods of each type. After assigning the introductory chapter in a section, an instructor can select the chapters to follow in any order desired. To assist students in using this book, the answers to about half of the problems are provided at the end of the book.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
Because many instrumental techniques have been or are being used in NASA’s exploration of Mars, we have attempted to present the principles and applications of these methods where appropriate.
We have included in this book new or updated Instrumental Analysis in Action features at the end of each section. One of the new case studies discusses the bisphenol A controversy and the role of chromatography in this environmental problem. The second covers the role of neutron activation analysis in the many investigations of the John F. Kennedy assassination. The case studies expand
on the methods introduced in each section and show how they can be applied to specific analytical problems. These stimulating examples have been selected from the forensic, environmental, and biomedical areas.
Digital Object Identiﬁers (DOIs) have been added to most references to the primary literature. These universal identiﬁers greatly simplify the task of locating articles by a link from the website www
.doi.org. A DOI may be typed into a form on the website home page, and when the identiﬁer is submitted, the browser transfers directly to the article on the publisher’s website. For example, the DOI 10.1351/goldbook.S05812 can be typed into the form, and the browser is directed to the IUPAC article on spectral bandwidth error. Alternatively, DOIs may be entered directly into the address bar
(also called location bar or URL bar) of any browser after adding the preﬁx http://dx.doi.org/ to the DOI as follows: http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/goldbook
.S05812. Please note that students or instructors must have authorized access to the publication of interest to retrieve articles. Many journals permit unauthorized users to access abstracts of articles without a subscription. Thus, preliminary research may be accomplished without full authorization.
All chapters have been revised and updated with recent references to the literature of analytical chemistry. Among the chapters that have been changed extensively are those on optical instrument components (Chapter 7), plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Chapter 10), atomic mass spectrometry (Chapter 11), X-ray spectrometry (Chapter
12), molecular mass spectrometry (Chapter 20), and supercritical ﬂuid chromatography (Chapter 29). Throughout the book, new and updated methods and techniques are described, and photos of speciﬁc commercial instruments have been added where appropriate. Some of these modern topics include laser-based spectrometry, ﬂuorescence quenching and lifetime measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and biosensors.
Many new and revised charts, diagrams, and plots contain data, curves, and waveforms calculated from theory or obtained from the original literature to provide an accurate and realistic representation
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