Power System Engineering: Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment
Power system engineering is the central area of activity for power system planning, project engineering, operation and rehabilitation of power systems for electrical power supply. Power system engineering comprises the analysis, calculation and design of electrical systems and equipment, the setup of tender documents, the evaluation of offers and their technical and fi nancial assessment and contract negotiations and award. It is seen as an indispensable and integral part of the engineering activities for feasibility studies, for planning and operating studies, for project engineering, for the development, extension and rehabilitation of existing facilities, for the design of network protection concepts and protective relay settings and also for clearing up of disturbances e.g. following short – circuits.
The supply of electricity – as for other sources of energy – at competitive unit price, in suffi cient quantity and quality, and with safe and reliable supply through reliable equipment, system structures and devices is of crucial importance for the economic development of industries, regions and countries. The planning of supply systems must take into account different boundary conditions, which are based on regional and structural consideration that in many cases have a considerable impact on the technical design. Given that, in comparison with all other industries, the degree of capital investment in electric utilities takes the top position, not only from the monetary point of view but also in terms of long – term return of assets, it becomes clear that each investment decision requires particularly careful planning and investigation, to which power system engineering and power system planning contribute substantially.
The reliability of the supply is determined not only by the quality of the equipment but also by careful planning and detailed knowledge of power systems, together with a consistent use of relevant standards and norms, in particular IEC standards, national standards and norms as well as internal regulations. Furthermore, the mode of system operation must conform to the conditions specifi ed by standards, including the planning process, manufacturing of equipment and commissioning. Just as faults in equipment cannot be totally excluded because of technical or human failure, likewise the equipment and installations cannot be designed to withstand any kind of fault: accordingly, the effects of faults must be limited. Thus, violation of or damage to other equipment must be prevented in order to ensure undisturbed system operation and reliable and safe supply to the consumers.
The security of the electrical power supply implies strict adherence to the conditions specifi ed in standards, norms and regulations concerning the prevention of accidents. In low – voltage systems the protection of individuals is seen of primar importance; at higher voltage levels the protection of equipment and installations must also be considered.
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