Organic Chemistry with Biological Topics 5th Edition
Since the publication of Organic Chemistry in 2005, chemistry has witnessed a rapid growth in its understanding of the biological world. The molecular basis of many complex biological processes is now known with certainty, and can be explained by applying the basic principles of organic chemistry. Because of the close relationship between chemistry and many biological phenomena, Organic Chemistry with Biological Topics presents an approach to traditional organic chemistry that incorporates the discussion of biological applications that are understood using the fundamentals of organic chemistry.
The Basic Features
Organic Chemistry with Biological Topics continues the successful student-oriented approach used in Organic Chemistry by Janice Gorzynski Smith. This text uses less prose and more diagrams and bulleted summaries for today’s students, who rely more heavily on visual imagery to learn than ever before. Each topic is broken down into small chunks of information that are more manageable and easily learned. Sample Problems illustrate stepwise problem solving, and relevant examples from everyday life are used to illustrate topics. New concepts are introduced one at a time so that the basic themes are kept in focus.
The organization of Organic Chemistry with Biological Topics provides the student with a logical and accessible approach to an intense and fascinating subject. The text begins with a healthy dose of review material in Chapters 1 and 2 to ensure that students have a firm grasp of the fundamentals. Stereochemistry, the three-dimensional structure of molecules, is introduced early (Chapter 5) and reinforced often. Certain reaction types with unique characteristics and terminology are grouped together. These include acid–base reactions (Chapter 2), oxidation and reduction (Chapters 12 and 20), radical reactions (Chapter 15), and reactions of organometallic reagents (Chapter 20). Each chapter ends with Key Concepts, end-of-chapter summaries that succinctly organize the main concepts and reactions.
New to Organic Chemistry with Biological Topics
While there is no shortage of biological applications that can be added to an organic chemistr text, we have chosen to concentrate on the following areas.
• Chapter 3 on functional groups now includes an expanded section on four types of biomolecules— amino acids and proteins, monosaccharides and carbohydrates, nucleotides and nucleic acids, and lipids. This material augments the discussions of vitamins and the cell membrane, topics already part of Organic Chemistry in past editions. Phosphorus-containing compounds such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the key intermediate used in energy transfer in cells, are also introduced in this chapter.
• Chapter 6 now uses biological examples to illustrate the basic types of organic reactions, and the energetics of coupled reactions in metabolism is presented. The discussion of enzymes as biological catalysts is expanded, and a specific example of an enzyme’s active site is shown.
• Chapter 17 now applies the discussion of aromatic heterocycles to the bases in DNA, the high molecular weight molecule that holds the encrypted genetic instructions for our development and cellular processes. In addition, new material has been added on the synthesis of female sex hormones with the aromatase enzyme, which has resulted in the development of drugs used to treat estrogen-dependent breast cancers.
• Chapter 19 contains a section on the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, a mathematical expression that allows us to tell whether a compound exists as an uncharged compound or ion at the cellular pH of 7.4. A section on phosphoric acid esters has been added, and the ionization of amino acids is now explained using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation.
• Chapter 22 contains additional material on two common carboxylic acid derivatives—acyl phosphates and thioesters. The role of these functional groups in the biosynthesis of amino acids and the metabolism of fatty acids is discussed.
• Chapter 24 contains a new section on biological carbonyl condensation reactions. Topics include the biological aldol reaction in the citric acid cycle, the retro-aldol reaction in the metabolism of glucose, and the biological Claisen reaction in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. In addition, the later chapters of the text are now reorganized to emphasize the connection of biomolecules to prior sections. The chapter on Amino Acids and Proteins (Chapter 26) now directly follows the chapter on Amines (Chapter 25), followed by the remaining chapters on biomolecules, Carbohydrates (Chapter 27) and Lipids (Chapter 28).
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