Mathematics: Its Content, Methods and Meaning
Mathematics, which originated in antiquity in the needs of daily life, has developed into an immense system of widely varied disciplines. Like the other sciences, it reflects the laws of the material world around us and serves as a powerful instrument for our knowledge and mastery of nature. But the high level of abstraction peculiar to mathematics means that its newer branches are relatively inaccessible to nonspecialists. This abstract character of mathematics gave birth even in antiquity to idealistic notions about its independence of the material world.
In preparing the present volume, the authors have kept in mind the goal of acquainting a sufficiently wide circle of the Soviet intelligentsia with the various mathematical disciplines, their content and methods, the foundations on which they are based, and the paths along which they have developed.
As a minimum of necessary mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader, we have assumed only secondary-school mathematics, but the volumes differ from one another with respect to the accessibility of the material contained in them. Readers wishing to acquaint themselves for the first time with the elements of higher mathematics may profitably read the first few chapters, but for a complete understanding of the subsequent parts it will be necessary to have made some study of corresponding textbooks. The book as a whole will be understood in a fundamental way only by readers who already have some acquaintance with the applications of mathematical analysis; that is to say, with the differential and integral calculus. For such readers, namely teachers of mathematics and instructors in engineering and the natural sciences, it will be particularly important to read those chapters which introduce the newer branches of mathematics.
Naturally it has not been possible, within the limits of one book, to exhaust all the riches of even the most fundamental results of mathematical research; a certain freedom in the choice of material has been inevitable here. But along general lines, the present book will give an idea of the present state of mathematics, its origins, and its probable future development. For this reason the book is also intended to some extent for persons already acquainted with most of the factual material in it. It may perhaps help to remove a certain narrowness of outlook occasionally to be found in some of our younger mathematicians.
The separate chapters of the book are written by various authors, whose names are given in the Contents. But as a whole the book is the result of collaboration. Its general plan, the choice of material, the successive versions of individual chapters, were all submitted to general discussion, and improvements were made on the basis of a lively exchange of opinions. Mathematicians from several cities in the Soviet Union were given an opportunity, in the form of organized discussion, to make many valuable remarks concerning the original version of the text. Their opinions and suggestions were taken into account by the authors.
The authors of some of the chapters also took a direct share in preparing the final version of other chapters: The introductory part of Chapter II was written essentially by B. N. Delone, while D. K. Faddeev played an active role in the preparation of Chapter IV and Chapter XX.
A share in the work was also taken by several persons other than the authors of the individual chapters: Â§4 of Chapter XIV was written by L. V. KantoroviÄ, Â§6 of Chapter VI by O.A. Ladyienskaja, Â§5 of Chapter 10 by A. G. Postnikov; work was done on the text of Chapter V by O.A. Oleinik and on Chapter XI by Ju. V. Prohorov.
Certain sections of Chapters I, 11,VII, and XVII were written by V. A. Zalgaller. The editing of the final text was done by V. A. Zalgaller and V. S. Videnskii with the cooperation of T. V. Rogozkinaja and A. P. Leonovaja.
The greater part of the illustrations were prepared by E. P. Senâ€™kin.
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