Life-Span Human Development 9th Edition
Book PrefaceLife-Span Human Development 9th Edition
This book is about the development of human beings—from their start as fertilized eggs to their dying days. It explores regularities as well as differences in development, and it asks fundamental questions about why we humans develop as we do. This ninth edition of Life-Span Human Development retains four core features valued by students and instructors over the years: (1) our unique integrated topical-chronological approach, (2) a presentation that is both research-based and relevant to students, (3) an emphasis on ideas—on the different theoretical perspectives that guide thinking about human development and research, and (4) an in- depth exploration of the all-important nature–nurture issue. In addition, we introduce exciting new topics and controversies in life-span human development, update coverage throughout, and offer new pedagogical features and supplements to enhance the teaching-learning process.
Topical and Chronological
The most distinctive feature of this book is its unique integrated topical-chronological approach. Almost all other life-span development textbooks adopt a chronological or “age-stage” approach, carving the life span into age ranges and describing the prominent characteristics of individuals within each age range. In contrast, we adopt a topical approach for the overall organization of the book blended with a chronological approach within chapters. Each chapter focuses on a domain of development, such as cognition, personality, or social relationships, and traces developmental trends and influences in that domain from infancy to old age. At the same time, each chapter highlights the special qualities of differentage groups through major sections on infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
Why have we fought the tide? Like many other instructors, we have typically favored topically organized textbooks when teaching child, adolescent, or adult development. As a result, it seemed natural to extend that same topical approach to the whole life span. It also bothered us that chronologically organized texts often have to repeat themselves to remind readers of where development left off in an earlier age period that was covered much earlier in the book.
More important, a topic-by-topic organization conveys the flow of development in each area—the systematic, and often dramatic, transformations we undergo as well as the ways in which we continue to be the same individuals. The topical approach also helps us emphasize the processes behind development. Finally, a topical approach captures the spirit of a life-span perspective on development: It encourages us—indeed obliges us—to view each period of life in relation to what comes before and what comes after. In chronologically organized textbooks, many topics are taken up only in connection with the age group to which they seem most relevant and are then dropped. A topical organization stimulates us to ask intriguing questions we might otherwise not ask, such as these about close relationships:
• What do infants’ attachments to their parents have in common with, and how do they differ from, attachments between childhood friends or between adult romantic partners?
• Do securely attached infants later have a greater capacity to form and sustain close relationships than infants whose early social experiences are less favorable?
• What are the consequences at different points in the life span of lacking a close relationship? Attachments are important throughout the life span and evolve over the life span; a topical organization helps make that clear.
We also appreciate the strengths of the chronological approach, particularly its ability to portray the whole person in each period of the life span. For this reason, we integrated the age-stage approach with the topical organization, aiming to have the best of both worlds.
Each topical chapter contains major sections on infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. These age-stage sections call attention to the distinctive qualities of each phase of life and make it easier for students to find material on an age period of particular interest to them. In short, we believe that our integrated topical-chronological approach gives students exactly what they deserve: an understanding of the flow of life- span development in particular areas and the factors influencing it along with an appreciation of the flavor of each developmental period.
1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development 3
2 Theories of Human Development 31
3 Genes, Environment, and Development 59
4 Prenatal Development and Birth 89
5 Body, Brain, and Health 127
6 Sensation, Perception, and Action 165
7 Cognition 201
8 Memory and Information Processing 233
9 Intelligence and Creativity 265
10 Language and Education 299
11 Self and Personality 333
12 Gender Roles and Sexuality 365
13 Social Cognition and Moral Development 399
14 Emotions, Attachment, and Social Relationships 433
15 The Family 467
16 Developmental Psychopathology 501
17 The Final Challenge: Death and Dying 533
Appendix: Careers in Human Development 562
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