Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 8th Edition
Thermodynamics, a key component of many fields of science and engineering, is based on laws of universal applicability. However, the most important applications of those laws, and the materials and processes of greatest concern, differ from one branch of science or engineering to another. Thus, we believe there is value in presenting this material from a chemical-engineering perspective, focusing on the application of thermodynamic principles to materials and processes most likely to be encountered by chemical engineers.
Although introductory in nature, the material of this text should not be considered simple. Indeed, there is no way to make it simple. A student new to the subject will find that a demanding task of discovery lies ahead. New concepts, words, and symbols appear at a bewildering rate, and a degree of memorization and mental organization is required. A far greater challenge is to develop the capacity to reason in the context of thermodynamics so that one can apply thermodynamic principles in the solution of practical problems. While maintaining the rigor characteristic of sound thermodynamic analysis, we have made every effort to avoid unnecessary mathematical complexity. Moreover, we aim to encourage understanding by writing in simple active-voice, present-tense prose. We can hardly supply the required motivation, but our objective, as it has been for all previous editions, is a treatment that may be understood by any student willing to put forth the required effort.
The text is structured to alternate between the development of thermodynamic principles and the correlation and use of thermodynamic properties as well as between theory and applications. The first two chapters of the book present basic definitions and a development of the first law of thermodynamics. Chapters 3 and 4 then treat the pressure/volume/temperature behavior of fluids and heat effects associated with temperature change, phase change, and chemical reaction, allowing early application of the first law to realistic problems. The second law is developed in Chap. 5, where its most basic applications are also introduced. A full treatment of the thermodynamic properties of pure fluids in Chap. 6 allows general application of the first and second laws, and provides for an expanded treatment of flow processes in Chap. 7. Chapters 8 and 9 deal with power production and refrigeration processes. The remainder of the book, concerned with fluid mixtures, treats topics in the unique domain of chemical-engineering thermodynamics. Chapter 10 introduces the framework of solution thermodynamics, which underlies the applications in the following chapters. Chapter 12 then describes the analysis of phase equilibria, in a mostly qualitative manner. Chapter 13 provides full treatment of vapor/liquid equilibrium. Chemical-reaction equilibrium is covered at length in Chap. 14. Chapter 15 deals with topics in phase equilibria, including liquid/liquid, solid/ liquid, solid/vapor, gas adsorption, and osmotic equilibria. Chapter 16 treats the thermodynamic analysis of real processes, affording a review of much of the practical subject matter of thermodynamics.
The material of these 16 chapters is more than adequate for an academic-year undergraduate course, and discretion, conditioned by the content of other courses, is required in the choice of what is covered. The first 14 chapters include material considered necessary to any chemical engineer’s education. Where only a single-semester course in chemical engineering thermodynamics is provided, these chapters may represent sufficient content. The book is comprehensive enough to make it a useful reference both in graduate courses and for professional practice. However, length considerations have required a prudent selectivity. Thus, we do not include certain topics that are worthy of attention but are of a specialized nature. These include applications to polymers, electrolytes, and biomaterials. We are indebted to many people—students, professors, reviewers—who have contributed in various ways to the quality of this eighth edition, directly and indirectly, through question and comment, praise and criticism, through seven previous editions spanning more than 65 years.
We would like to thank McGraw-Hill Education and all of the teams that contributed to the development and support of this project. In particular, we would like to thank the following editorial and production staff for their essential contributions to this eighth edition: Thomas Scaife, Chelsea Haupt, Nick McFadden, and Laura Bies. We would also like to thank Professor Bharat Bhatt for his much appreciated comments and advice during the accuracy check. To all we extend our thanks.
J. M. Smith
H. C. Van Ness
M. M. Abbott
M. T. Swihart
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