Introducing Food Science, Second Edition
This second edition has added two authors and three new contributors to specific chapters. We have also added a chapter on “Sustainability and Distribution” to acknowledge growing interest among the food science community in this topic. Much has happened in food science since the first edition was published. Processed foods have come under a more concerted attack from many sources, although most of these sources do not define what constitutes a processed food as opposed to a whole food. Consumers are confused by such a discussion and appear to make a distinction between processed and packaged foods that may not be merited. In this edition, we address such issues and provide our perspective as food scientists on processed, formulated, chilled, and prepared foods. We have updated the text of the first edition and almost half of the illustrations are new. A glossary has been added to this book and key terms are presented in bold when they first appear in the book.
Both editions were specifically designed to provide an overview of the field of food science for the major and non-major alike. The narrative proceeds from a nontechnical discussion of food issues that concern today’s student to a more comprehensive technical overview of the basic principles as they relate to the study of food. Sandwiched in between are descriptions of the types of commercial products and processes with particular reference to nutritional consequences and primary functions of roles of food scientists. Each section builds on the previous section, providing a logical structure and cohesiveness. At the end of each chapter, we have included in the second edition a series of problems to help students test their ability to comprehend the material and to provide instructors a reservoir for assignments, class discussions, and test questions. All of these problems are stated in a format that can be linked to Bloom’s taxonomy as it relates to IFT Core Competencies. At least one problem at the end of each chapter involves a calculation for instructors who bemoan the weakness in quantitative skills they see in their students.
Food science is unique among scientific disciplines in the heavy commercial orientation of the field. Food science serves as the technical arm of the food industry, where most food science graduates are employed. Although academicians acknowledge the importance of commercial aspects of the field, they are also dedicated to being a source of unbiased knowledge for the consumer and regulatory agencies. This book attempts to convey both commercial and scientific perspectives on the field in the interest of providing a true flavor of food science.
Food issues in the news comprise the first section of this book. From disease outbreaks to health benefits and detriments to international trade, foods and beverages provide a steady source of stories in every type of news medium. As consumers of foods and beverages daily, everyone has interests, concerns, opinions, and questions about what they eat. Unfortunately, most issues in the news pose nontechnical questions that defy technical answers. The purpose of this section is to enter the student’s world and reframe food issues as presented from a journalistic viewpoint into a more scientific perspective. Stories are selected as illustrations for each chapter—Safety, Healthiness of Foods, and Foods We Eat. While widely held misconceptions are presented and corrected, the text avoids pat answers. Rather, emphasis is placed on separating what we know about such issues from what we don’t know and how they can be reformulated into testable hypotheses. For greater depth on specific issues, the student is referred to specific passages later in the book.
The second section introduces students to commercial food products. Chapters 4 through 6—Processed Foods, Formulated Foods, and Chilled and Prepared Foods—provide the basic principles of food manufacture and food preservation with a strong emphasis on unit operations. Both traditional (canning, freezing, fermenting, and drying) and more modern (aseptic, irradiation, and high pressure) processes are presented. The importance of individual ingredients and how they are displayed on food labels are vehicles used to introduce formulated foods, a major component of the student diet. Sections on the moves of food companies to provide “clean labels” and “gluten-free foods” have been added to this edition. Foodservice operations, distribution systems, and packaging technology highlight the discussion on chilled and prepared foods. Material in these three chapters is sprinkled with flowcharts, diagrams, ingredient statements, and pictures to illustrate the major points. The importance of food preservation and sanitation in preventing food-associated outbreaks raised in Chapter 1 provides a major theme.
The profession of food science provides the basis for Section III. Career opportunities, necessary background, and professional perspective permeate these chapters. Chapter 7 on quality assurance introduces the topic of quality (nutritional, microbial, and sensory), its measurement, process control, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), shelf life, and commercial sanitation. Chapter 8 on product and process development describes the creative process and what is required to provide the wealth of options available to the modern consumer with sufficient quality and shelf life. Chapter 9 on sustainability and distribution brings attention to the demand for environmental responsibility and the industry response to that demand. Chapter 10 on government regulation and scientific research presents the importance of food regulations and a fundamental understanding of foods to ensure a healthy and safe food supply to include changes brought about by Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).
The book culminates with an introduction to the basic principles of the primary subdisciplines within food science. This section represents more in-depth technical detail needed to answer questions posed earlier in the book. A chemical basis for safety, nutrition, preservation, ingredient functionality, and quality is provided in Chapter 11. The basic principles of nutrition and the contribution of foods to our health are presented in Chapter 12. An understanding of the factors that affect growth and inhibition of fermentative of spoilage, and pathogenic microorganisms is described in Chapter 13. Critical engineering concepts needed to understand the design and monitoring of food processes are described in Chapter 14 with a greater emphasis on the mathematical basis of the field than in the first edition. Fundamentals of sensory perception of foods and systematic means of measuring sensory attributes provide the basis of the final chapter. The section is designed to whet the student’s appetite for a deeper taste of food science in more detailed books and courses.
While no single volume will satisfy needs for all introductory courses, this book offers a range of material that should be useful for many of those courses. Introductory courses for non-majors would focus on the first three sections and use the last section primarily as a reference source for scientific principles. In contrast, courses for food science majors would emphasize the final three sections and use the initial food issues section as a basis for outside readings and assignments. Courses that include both majors and non-majors would require more careful tailoring of course content to meet the specific needs of the students.
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