Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems 8th Edition
Goals, Philosophy,and Theme
Even though I started teaching physiology in the mid-1960s, today I still am awestruck at the miraculous intricacies and efficiency of body function. No machine can perform even a portion of natural body function as effectively. My goal in writing physiology textbooks is not only to help students learn about how the body works, but also to share my enthusiasm for the subject matter. Most of us, even infants, have a natural curiosity about how our bodies work. When a baby first discovers it can control its own hands, it is fascinated and spends many hours manipulating them in front of its face. By capitalizing on students’ natural curiosity about themselves, I try to make physiology a subject they can enjoy learning.
Even the most tantalizing subject can be difficult to comprehend if not effectively presented, however. Therefore, this book has a logical, understandable format with an emphasis on how each concept is an integral part of the entire subject. Too often, students view the components of a physiology course as isolated entities; by understanding how each component depends on the others, a student can appreciate the integrated functioning of the human body. The text focuses on the mechanisms of body function from cells to systems and is organized around the central theme of homeostasis—how the body meets changing demands while maintaining the internal constancy necessary for all cells and organs to function. The text is written in simple, straightforward language, and every effort has been made to ensure smooth reading through good transitions, commonsense reasoning, and integration of ideas throughout.
This text is designed for undergraduate students preparing for health-related careers, but its approach and depth also are appropriate for other undergraduates. Because this book is intended as an introduction and, for most students, may be their only exposure to a formal physiology text, all aspects of physiology receive broad coverage, yet depth, where needed, is not sacrificed. The scope of this text has been limited by judicious selection of pertinent content that a student can reasonably be expected to assimilate in a one-semester physiology course. Materials were selected for inclusion on a “need to know” basis, so the book is not cluttered with unnecessary detail. Instead, content is restricted to relevant information needed to understand basic physiological concepts and to serve as a foundation for future careers in the health professions. Some controversial ideas and hypotheses are presented to illustrate that physiology is a dynamic, changing discipline.
To keep pace with today’s rapid advances in the health sciences, students in the health professions must be able to draw on their conceptual understanding of physiology instead of merely recalling isolated facts that soon may be out of date. Therefore, this text is designed to promote understanding of the basic principles and concepts of physiology rather than memorization of details.
In consideration of the clinical orientation of most students, research methodologies and data are not emphasized, although the material is based on up-to-date evidence. New information based on recent discoveries has been included throughout. Students can be assured of the timeliness and accuracy of the material presented. To make room for new, pertinent information, I have carefully trimmed content while clarifying, modifying, and simplifying as needed to make this edition fresh, readerfriendly, and current.
Because the function of an organ depends on the organ’s construction, enough relevant anatomy is integrated within the text to make the inseparable relation between form and function meaningful.
Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology and Homeostasis 1
Chapter 2 Cell Physiology 21
Chapter 3 The Plasma Membrane and Membrane Potential 56
Chapter 4 Principles of Neural and Hormonal Communication 89
Chapter 5 The Central Nervous System 134
Chapter 6 The Peripheral Nervous System: Afferent Division; Special Senses 185
Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division 239
Chapter 8 Muscle Physiology 258
Chapter 9 Cardiac Physiology 304
Chapter 10 The Blood Vessels and Blood Pressure 343
Chapter 11 The Blood 389
Chapter 12 Body Defenses 414
Chapter 13 The Respiratory System 456
Chapter 14 The Urinary System 504
Chapter 15 Fluid and Acid–Base Balance 550
Chapter 16 The Digestive System 581
Chapter 17 Energy Balance and Temperature Regulation 635
Chapter 18 Principles of Endocrinology; The Central Endocrine Glands 656
Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands 685
Chapter 20 The Reproductive System 735
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