Human Anatomy & Physiology (11th Edition)
Today’s students have access to an enormous amount of information about anatomy and physiology. As educators,
our biggest challenge is to help students focus on mastering the basic concepts of this field. Providing this firm foundation will help students to become lifelong lean1ers who can critically evaluate new information, connect that information to the foundation they have already established, and apply it in a clinical setting. How can we help students build a strong foundation in anatomy and physiology? We believe that this new edition of our textbook will help learners by building on the strengths of previous editions while using new and innovative ways to help students visualize connections between various concepts.
Three unifying themes that have helped to organize and set the tone of this textbook continue to be valid and are retained in this edition. These themes are:
Interrelationships of body organ systems. This theme empha-sizes the fact that nearly all regulatory mechanisms have interactions with several organ systems. The respiratory system, for example, cannot carry out its role of gas exchange in the body if there are problems with the cardiovascular system that prevent the normal delivery of blood throughout the body. The System Connections feature and Make Connections questions throughout the book help students connect new information to old information and think of the body as a community of dynamic parts instead of a number of independent units.
Homeostasis. Homeostasis is the normal and most desirable condition of the body. Its loss is always associated with past or present pathology. This theme is not included to emphasize pathological conditions, but rather to illustrate what happens in the body “when things go wrong” and homeostasis is lost. Whenever students see a red balance beam symbol accompanied by an associated clinical topic, their understanding of how the body works to stay in balance is reinforced.
Complementarity of struct ure and function. This theme encourages students to understand the structure of some body
part (ranging from a molecule to an organ) in order to understand the function of that structure. For example, muscle cells
can produce movement because they are contractile cells.
New to the Eleventh Edition
New and augmented elements aim to help learners in the fol -lowing ways.
To help students make connections between new and previously learned material. ln order for students to master new concepts, they must link these new concepts with concepts they already understand. In this edition, we help them do this by adding:
• Text recall icons (<Ill). These icons direct the student back to the specific pages where a concept was first introduced.
• Make Connections questions. We’ve added more of this type of question to the Check Your Understanding review questions that follow each module within a chapter. To answer these questions, the student must e,nploy concepts
learned previously (1nost often in previous chapters).
• New kinds of higher-level questions. Each chapter now has at least five higher-level questions that require students to think more deeply, pulling together strands from multiple concepts. These questions are clearly identified as mµµq,
MAKE CONNECTIONS , and M#WIIM que.stions.
• New summary tables. Students have told us that they want more sumtnary tables. In response, 13 new summary tables (two with illustrations) have been added in order to help students see the big picture.
To enhance students’ visual literacy. Anatomy is and has always been taught principally through images. lncreasingly,
however, physiological data is also represented as images, whether it be molecular interactions or graphical descriptions of processes. Throughout their future health care careers, students will need to be able to understand and interpret information presented visually. In this edition, we help them do this by:
• Adding new Focus figures. Focus figures are illustrations that use a “big picture” layout and dramatic art to guide the
student through difficult physiological processes in a step-by-step way. Our previous Focus figures have been a hit with both students and instructors. [n response to requests for additional Focus figures, we are pleased to present six new two-page features.
• Adding 1•)$WI questions in each chapter. Students often think that they understand an illustration simply by look
ing at it, but to truly comprehend an illustration and cement its concepts requires a more active learning approach. For
this reason we now include at least one higher-level review question within each chapter that requires a student either to draw an illustration or to add to an existing diagram.
• Adding questions about illustrations. To help students practice their visual literacy skills, we have added 47 new
Check Your Understanding questions that include an illustration as part of the question. Some of these are as simple as labeling exercises, but many require more advanced interpretation.
• Updating art t o improve its teaching effectiveness. As always, this is a major part of the revision. Today’s students are accustomed to seeing sophisticated photorealistical rendered images. However, many students are not adept at extracting, and thinking critically about, the relevant information contained in such illustrations. With this in mind we continue to refine and update our illustrations as students’
needs change, improving their ability to teach important concepts. In many cases we have added blue “instructor’s voice” text within the figure to guide a student through it, replacing much of the more remote figure legend. In addition, new photos were painstakingly chosen and labeled to enhance the learning process.
• Adding new illustrations to existing tables and adding new illustrated tables. Students find illustrated tables particularly effective because they provide a visual cue that helps the,n remember a topic. [n this edition, we have added illustrations to two tables and added two newillustrated tables.
• Adding in-line figures. These are small (less than a half-column wide) illustrations or photos strategically located within the text that discuss the concept they illustrate.
This edition now has 31 such in-line figures, most of them newly added.
To help students clinically apply what they have learned
• Updated Homeostatic Imbalance features. Many of the Homeostatic Imbalance features have been updated and relevant photos have been added to so,ne. All have been reviewed for accuracy and relevancy. In addition, the updated book design makes these features stand out more clearly.
• Updated Clinical Case Studies in Chapters S-29 with + NCLEX-STYLE
added new questions. The end-of-chapter review questions, which are now organized into three levels of difficulty based on Bloom’s Taxonomy categories,
culminate in a clinical case study that allows students to apply some of the concepts they have learned to a clinical scenario. These case studies have been extensively revised and each case study has t\vo questions that are similar in style to those in the NCLEX exam.
• New clinically relevant photos. We have added or updated a number of photos that have clinical relevance (procedures, conditions, etc.) that will help students apply what they arereading to real-life situations and to their future careers.
In this edition, certain chapters have received the bulk of our attention and have been more heavily revised. As you can see in the Highlights of New Content (below), these are Chapters 2-4, 9, and 27-29.
As in the previous edition, we have taken painstaking care to ensure that almost all the text and the associated art are covered on the same two-page spread. Although this sounds like a simple goal, it actually takes a great deal of work and has not usual I y been achieved by other textbooks. We make this effort because it is invaluable to student learning to not have to flip pages back and forth between art and text. Finally, you will notice the appearance of new icons referencing MasteringA&P® interspersed within the text. This guides students to go to the relevant on-line activities to supplement their learning.
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