Handbook of Silicon Photonics (Series in Optics and Optoelectronics)
In 1965, Gordon Moore announced his famous law that the number of transistors per chip will double every 19 months.1 Since then, Moore’s law has driven the development of microelectronics. Microelectronic evolution has followed the motto “smaller, cheaper, faster” by using very-large-scale integration of a basic building block, the transistor. Today, there are processors that contain billions of transistors, each one with dimensions of a few tenths of nanometers. It is interesting to note that in 1969, S. T. Miller from Bell Labs already suggested that integration should drive the development of photonics as well.2 However, the number of photonic components for optical integrated circuits has not grown as for microelectronics over the years. Current integrated photonic circuits contain only a hundred different components with the burden of a high production cost. Instead of looking for performance improvements by increasing the integration level, photonic research was concentrated on single device scale refinements. What is the reason for this? Table P.1 shows a comparison between microelectronic and photonic in term of building blocks, materials, and technology. While for microelectronics the key feature is standard (a single building block is repetitively manufactured with a single material and a single production process), for photonics, there is a diversity of materials, elementary devices, and manufacturing processes. This is the main reason why microelectronics kept pace with integration while photonics did so with isolated device optimization. The rationale of silicon photonics is to apply the paradigm of microelectronics to photonics by manufacturing various devices in a single materia —silicon—and using a single manufacturing process—the CMOS process (see Table P.1). In this way, the level of integration of photonic devices can be increased, which in turn is reflected in an increase in the performance of the photonic integrated circuit. At the same time, mass manufacturing of integrated photonic circuits yields a low price of production per unit.3
During recent years, additional materials, mainly germanium and III–V semiconductors, have been introduced in silicon photonics to reach efficient building blocks. The complexity of each device has gotten higher and higher to take into account light polarization and performance independence in a broad wavelength range. Manufacturing technology has shifted from a pure CMOS process, still keeping in mind CMOS process compatibility. This was achieved by producing the photonic devices using typical CMOS manufacturing tools and trying to depart at least from standard CMOS processes. In fact, most of microelectronics industries are now developing programs on silicon photonics within their production line using 200- and 300-mm CMOS tools.
1. Group IV Materials
Erich Kasper, Michael Oehme, Matthias Bauer, Martin Kittler, Manfred Reiche, Osamu Nakatsuka, and Shigeaki Zaima
2. Guided Light in Silicon-Based Materials.
Koji Yamada, Tai Tsuchizawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Christian Koos, Joerg Pfeifle, Jens H. Schmid, Pavel Cheben, Przemek J. Bock, and Andrew P. Knights
3. Off-Chip Coupling.
Wim Bogaerts and Diedrik Vermeulen
4. Multichannel Silicon Photonic Devices
Ting Lei, Shaoqi Feng, Aimé Sayarath, Jun-Feng Song, Xianshu Luo, Guo-Qiang Lo, and Andrew W. Poon
5. Nonlinear Optics in Silicon.
Ozdal Boyraz, Xinzhu Sang, Massimo Cazzanelli, and Yuewang Huang
6. Long-Wavelength Photonic Circuits.
Goran Z. Mashanovich, Milan M. Milošević, Sanja Zlatanovic, Faezeh Gholami, Nikola Alic, Stojan Radic, Zoran Ikonic, Robert W. Kelsall, and Gunther Roelkens
7. Photonic Crystals
Masaya Notomi, Kengo Nozaki, Shinji Matsuo, and Toshihiko Baba
8. Silicon-Based Light Sources
Aleksei Anopchenko, Alexei Prokofiev, Irina N. Yassievich, Stefano Ossicini, Leonid Tsybeskov, David J. Lockwood, Saba Saeed, Tom Gregorkiewicz, Maciek Wojdak, Jifeng Liu, and Al Meldrum
9. Optical Modulation
Delphine Marris-Morini, Richard A. Soref, David J. Thomson, Graham T. Reed, Rebecca K. Schaevitz, and David A. B. Miller
Jurgen Michel, Steven J. Koester, Jifeng Liu, Xiaoxin Wang, Michael W. Geis, Steven J. Spector, Matthew E. Grein, Jung U. Yoon, Theodore M. Lyszczarz, and Ning- Ning Feng
11. Hybrid and Heterogeneous Photonic Integration
Martijn J. R. Heck and John E. Bowers
12. Fabrication of Silicon Photonics Devices.
Francisco López Royo
13. Convergence between Photonics and CMOS.
Thierry Pinguet and Jean-Marc Fedeli
14. Silicon Photonics for Biology.
Dan-Xia Xu, Siegfried Janz, Adam Densmore, André Delâge, Pavel Cheben, Jens H. Schmid, Ryan C. Bailey, Adam T. Heiniger, Qiang Lin, Philippe M. Fauchet, Qi Wang, and Yimin Chao
15. Silicon-Based Photovoltaics
Mario Tucci, Massimo Izzi, Radovan Kopecek, Michelle McCann, Alessia Le Donne, Simona Binetti, Shujuan Huang, and Gavin Conibeer
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