General, Organic, and Biochemistry 9th Edition
To Our Students
Just as some researchers study chemical change, others study learning. The two are related: there are measurable changes in the brain as learning occurs. While the research on brain chemistry and learning continues, the research on learning has taught us some very successful strategies for teaching and learning chemistry. For instance, we now know that building long-term memory requires “repetitions.” When you exercise to build muscle strength, you perform some number of “reps” of each exercise for each muscle that you wish to build. That is exactly what you need to do to build your long-term memory and understanding. The Center for Academic Success at the Louisiana State University has devised study tools that have allowed students to improve their performance by a full letter grade, or higher. The following is the Study Cycle with five stages that provide the “reps” needed to perform well in any course:
1.Preview the chapter before class. Either the evening before or the day of class, skim the material; pay attention to the end-of-chapter summary with boldfaced key terms, chapter map, the learning goals, and headings. Think of questions you would like the instructor to answer. Think of this 10 minutes as your “warm up.”
2.Attend class! Be an active participant in the class, asking and answering questions and taking thoughtful, meaningful notes. Class time is much more meaningful if you have already familiarized yourself with the organization and key concepts to be discussed.
3.Review your notes as soon as possible after class. Fill in any gaps that exist and note any additional questions that arise. This also takes about 10 minutes; think of it as your “cool down” period.
4.Study. Since repetition is the key to success, The Center for Academic Success recommends 3–5 short, but intense, study sessions each day. These intense study sessions should have a very structured organization. In the first 2–5 minutes, establish your goal for the session. Spend the next 30–50 minutes studying with focus and action. Orga-nize the material, make flash cards to help you review, draw concept maps to define the relationship among ideas, and practice problem solving. Then reward yourself with a 5–10 minute break. Call a friend, play Angry Birds, or do anything you find enjoyable. Then take 5 minutes to review the material. Finally, about once a week, perhaps on the weekend, review all of the material that you have been studying throughout the week.
5.Assess your progress. Are you able to solve the questions and problems at the end of the chapter? Can you explain the concepts to others? The assessment will affirm what you know well and reveal what you need to study further.
The Center for Academic Success has many other suggestions to help students learn how to learn. You can find their online tutorials and workshops at www.cas.lsu.edu.
To the Instructor
The ninth edition of General, Organic, and Biochemistry, like our earlier editions, has been designed to help undergraduate majors in health-related fields understand key concepts and appreciate significant connections among chemistry, health, and the treatment of disease. We have tried to strike a balance between theoretical and practical chemistry, while emphasizing material that is unique to health-related studies. We have written at a level intended for students whose professional goals do not include a mastery of chemistry, but for whom an understanding of the principles and practice of chemistry is a necessity.
Although our emphasis is the importance of chemistry to the health-related professions, we wanted this book to be appropriate for all students who need a one- or two-semester introduction to chemistry. Students learn best when they are engaged. One way to foster that engagement is to help them see clear relationships between the subject and real life. For these reasons, we have included perspectives and essays that focus on medicine and the function of the human body, as well as the environment, forensic science, and even culinary arts.
We begin that engagement with the book cover. Students may wonder why the cover has a photo of the Caucasian snowdrop (Galanthus caucasicus). What does this flower have to do with the study of chemistry or the practice of medicine? They will learn that Russian scientists extracted the drug galantamine from this plant in the early 1950s and others found that it was useful in treating nerve pain and poliomyelitis. More recently, it has been discovered that the drug is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and that it can cross the blood-brain barrier. These characteristics have made it a useful drug for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. By inhibiting the enzyme, galantamine increases the amount of acetylcholine in the brain; this, in turn, enhances brain function, memory, and the ability to think more clearly.
The cover sets the theme for the book: chemistry is not an abstract study, but one that has an immediate impact on our lives. We try to spark student interest with an art program that uses relevant photography, clear and focused figures, and perspectives and essays that bring life to abstract ideas. We reinforce key concepts by explaining them in a clear and concise way and encouraging students to apply the concept to solve problems. We provide guidance through the inclusion of a large number of in-chapter examples that are solved in a stepwise fashion and that provide students the opportunity to test their understanding through the practice problems that follow and the suggested end-of-chapter questions and problems that apply the same concepts.
learning and understanding. Topics revised include physical characteristics, nomenclature, geometric isomers, and parts of the section on the reactions of alkenes and alkynes. A new table, and accompanying text, on saturated and unsaturated fatty acids has been added to help students recognize the practical applications of the chemistry being studied.
Chapter 12 A new Example, Using the Common System of Nomenclature to Name Alcohols, has been added, along with a set of practice problems and a set of recommended practice problems to help students master the concept. The Medical Perspective: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, has been updated to reflect the more recently described Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. New text art has been designed to help students understand the physical properties of alcohols and the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Revision of the discussion of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, along with the new text art, provides students with a clear idea of the importance of hydrogen bonding in biological systems. The information on general anesthetics has been updated, and sections on physical properties, dehydration reactions, and oxidation of alcohols have been revised for greater clarity.
Chapter 13 A new Human Perspective: Powerful Weak Attractions, including two For Further Understanding questions, has been added to the revised Chapter 13. New text art has been added to the discussion of the common names of ketones and to clarify oxidation products of aldehydes under acidic or basic conditions. Other new text art clarifies the structure of hemiac-etals and acetals. Three examples have been modified to include a structure of practical interest or to clarify the principle being applied. Revisions to the text included a reorganization of the discussion of structure and physical properties and additional details to clarify the IUPAC nomenclature of ketones.
Chapter 14 A new Medical Perspective: Esters for Appetite Control, including two For Further Understanding questions, has been added. Five new text art diagrams have been added to support the revisions of the text with regard to the structure and physical properties of carboxylic acids and esters, as well as the action of soaps and the significance of phosphoester compounds in nature. Other revisions in the text include the preparation of carboxylic acids, the properties and nomenclature of carboxylic acid salts, and the structure, physical properties, and nomenclature of esters. Unnecessary content regarding acid anhydrides has been deleted.
Chapter 15 New text art, with the associated text revisions, has been designed to assist student understanding of the physical properties and nomenclature of amines, the nomenclature of alkylammonium salts, neutralization reactions, and preparation of amides from acid chlorides. Along with revision of the nature of neutralization reactions, hydrolysis of amides, and nomenclature of amides, the synthesis and structure of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides is introduced in this edition. To complement these changes, the chapter map has been revised and three new key terms have been introduced. Four new problems have been added to allow students to test their understanding of the new materials.
Chapter 16 A new Medical Perspective: Human Milk Oligosac-charides, including two For Further Understanding questions, has been added. A new Example, Identifying a Chiral Compound, has been added, along with a set of practice problems and a set of recommended practice problems to allow students to test their mastery of the concept. A new figure (16.13) shows the action of the enzymes a-amylase, b-amylase, and maltase. The section on meso compounds has been revised completely and two new problems have been included.
Chapter 17 Section 17.2 has been reorganized so that v-fatty acids are discussed prior to the section on prostaglandins. The reactions of fatty acids and glycerides has also been reorga-nized and revised for greater clarity. All text art in the section on sphingolipids has been redesigned as line formulas to enhance student understanding of the structures.
Chapter 18 Two new perspectives have been added to Chapter 18: A Medical Perspective: Medications from Venoms and A Human Perspective: The New Protein. Sections 18.4, 18.5, and 18.7 have been revised to streamline the text and clarify concepts.
Chapter 19 A Medical Perspective: HIV Protease Inhibitors and Pharmaceutical Drug Design has been updated to reflect the variety of new drugs available to treat the infection in adults and children. The discussion of transferases has been rewritten and new text art designed to provide students with an example that they will study later in the chapters on metabolism. Text revisions include Section 19.3 and passages in Sections 19.4, 19.6,
19.7, and 19.8. In all cases, the revisions streamline and simplify concepts to promote more effective student learning.
Chapter 20 A new Medical Perspective: Epigenomics, including two For Further Understanding questions, has been added. The more recently described non-invasive prenatal testing procedure has been included in A Medical Perspective: Molecular Genetics and Detection of Human Genetic Disorders. The sections on the chemical composition of DNA and RNA and on chromatin structure have been revised for clarity. Section 20.8, Recombinant DNA, has been rewritten to reduce some of the historical methodologies so that students will focus on the potential of more recent advances.
Chapter 21 A Medical Perspective: High Fructose Corn Syrup has been updated with information on the recent studies demonstrating the impact of glucose and fructose on the hypothalamus of humans. In each of Sections 21.1–21.6, the text has been revised to simplify concepts. Section 21.7 has been reorganized for greater clarity.
Chapter 22 A new Medical Perspective, Babies with Three Parents, including two For Further Understanding questions, has been added. Throughout the chapter, the text has been revised to streamline the writing and clarify the concepts.
Chapter 23 Section 23.5 has been revised extensively to avoid redundancy with information presented in earlier chapters. Six new problems have been added to this chapter.
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