Essentials of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (2nd Revised edition)
This is the second edition of this textbook, which lays down the foundations of how exposure of drug within the body and response following drug administration are quantified and integrated, and how this vital information provides a rational approach to the establishment, optimization, and individualization of dosage regimens in patients. The title of the first edition began “Introduction to…,” but so many readers of the first edition expressed the view that this textbook contained the very essence of the quantitative basis of drug therapy that we decided to change the title to Essentials of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: The Quantitative Basis of Drug Therapy. The book is intended for students and practitioners of pharmacy and medicine, as well as other health professionals, who need to understand the basic principles upon which quantitative decisions in drug therapy are based. It will also be a valuable resource and primer for those in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries involved in drug development, especially those from other backgrounds who have been given responsibility for the clinical development and evaluation of new drugs and those involved in the registration and regulation of drugs.
We are perhaps best known for our larger textbook Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Concepts and Applications, now in its fourth edition. This widely read, more in-depth, textbook serves a more advanced readership. In a sense, this smaller Essentials textbook aims to meet the needs of another wide audience, those who apply the principles in clinical practice or who work on the clinical side of drug development, who are in need not only of a more simplified textbook but, in particular, one that links drug exposure within the body to drug response—that is, to the pharmacodynamics of drugs. It provides the key quantitative tools and principles of drug therapy without recourse to an extensive use of mathematics, although some use of mathematics is essential when dealing with the quantitative aspects of drug therapy. Furthermore, many examples of currently prescribed drugs are included in the book to emphasize its utility to contemporary practice.
The book begins with the basic principles underlying pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and finishes with the application of these principles to the establishment, maintenance, and optimization of dosage regimens for the individual patient. Relative to the first edition, the second has many more Study Problems, including many in the multiple choice format used in licensing examinations. There are also practice questions that allow the reader to calculate and appreciate the quantitative aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. As some readers may have less familiarity with some of the medical terms needed to convey the therapeutic setting in which pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are acquired and applied, an appendix of medical terms and words used in the text has been included. Chapters 5 and 6 of the first edition have been expanded to four chapters on: Quantifying Events Following An Intravenous Bolus, Physiologic and Physicochemical Determinants of Drug Disposition, Quantifying Events Following An Extravascular Dose, and Physiologic and Physicochemical Determinants of Drug Absorption. The second edition alsohas a greater emphasis on protein drugs and has been reorganized and updated from the first. With its emphasis on the integration of basic concepts, as well as concern for clarity of content in each chapter, great attention has been devoted to ensuring that the material content builds on knowledge from prior chapters as one progresses through the book.
Key elements in the organization of each chapter include Objectives at the beginning and a Summary and a Key Term Review toward the end. The Key Relationships of each chapter and Study Problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Detailed answers to the problems are provided in Appendix F. Definitions of Symbols and Medical Terms and Words used throughout the book are located in Appendices A and B. Appendices C, D, and E are intended as supplemental material for the interested reader. They also contain a few practice problems with answers to them in Appendix F. Further details on the organization of the book are given at the end of Chapter 1. Intentionally, coverage of the many concepts is not comprehensive; the book is meant to provide selected examples that illustrate the principles presented and to encourage the reader to give further thought to the concepts.
As an introductory text, this book should be particularly helpful to those teaching pharmacy and medical students within a separate course or within a pharmacology course or elective course in clinical pharmacology. In general, the textbook should be useful in all courses designed to train health professionals in the fundamental principles underlying the establishment of dosage regimens and individualization of drug administration to optimize drug therapy. We recognize that, in addition, some readers will treat this as a self-study textbook. Indeed, it has been written and organized to facilitate this mode of learning.
We wish to acknowledge all the students and colleagues, both in academia and the industry—too numerous to name individually—whose interactions over the years have provided the very “food for thought” for many parts of this book. Without their input, this book would not have been possible. Finally, and most importantly, our special thanks to our wives, Margaret and Dawn, for putting up with the many hours and temporary separations needed for us to work together to write this book.
THOMAS N. TOZER
South San Francisco, California
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