Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology 4th Edition
Influencing every facet of business, society, and life worldwide, with speed beyond imagination, the field of information science and technology has without a doubt brought upon a revolution in the way the human population interacts, does business, and governs. As one takes into account the leaps and bounds experienced in information sharing and communication exchange over the last few decades, a truly admirable phenomenon presents itself and clearly shows that the results of this pivotal rising will monumentally impact the way the world thinks, subsists, and evolves.
With a long history of expeditious evolution, the growth and expansion of information technology began during the early 1950s with the main purpose of initiating scientific computing, expanding research, and utilizing the power of computers as a means to support a mass volume of computational tasks in scientific applications and discoveries. Later, during the 1960s and ’70s, the use of computer technology was extended to business applications, mostly in accounting and financial areas that involved processing numbers and collecting data in a quantitative sense. As a result, the use of this technology was limited to those who had an expansive knowledge of these systems and had access to computer programming languages. With the evolution of computers and telecommunications in the 1980s, a new information technology was born with a strong focus on the management and dissemination of information by both information providers and users across the globe.
In the early 1990s, the most noticeable advancement in the information technology revolution was the creation of the Internet. During the past two decades, Internet technologies have become the driving force in allowing people worldwide to communicate and exchange information, creating a new virtual, interactive dimension and providing a digital forum for global social connection. In recent years, through the use of Web-enabled technologies, organizations of all types and sizes around the world have managed to utilize these technologies to disseminate and process information with prospective customers, suppliers, students, and governments. Today, the ability to communicate and connect from many locations through personal computers has influenced different people in many different societies. These technologies allow everyone, regardless of their geographic location, to bring the information age to its full realization.
In recent years, the science of understanding the nature of information processing and management, along with the computers and technologies that decipher, disseminate, and manage information, has become known as information science and technology. Technology has profoundly impacted science, business, and society, thus constructing an entity that improves access to the rapidly expanding body of knowledge in almost every discipline. Society fuels this knowledge creation, as it receives, manages, educates, and collects information. The volume and intensity of research in information science and technology have exceeded many other fields of science, and research discoveries have become the impetus behind many emerging tools and applications seen at every organizational level. In addressing this need for the representation of evolving information science and technology disciplines in academic literature, the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, released in early 2005, positioned itself as the first of its kind in reference publications, offering an invaluable source highlighting major breakthroughs, discoveries, and authoritative research results in technological advancements. In providing this compendium of references, definitions, and keywords within this field of pivotal social and organizational movement, the five-volume Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (First Edition) supplied researchers with a definitive one-stop reference source.
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