Biology, 9th Edition
This ninth edition of Solomon, Berg, Martin Biology conveys our vision of the dynamic science of biology and how it aff ects every aspect of our lives, from our health and behavior to the challenging environmental issues that confront us. New discoveries in the biological sciences continue to increase our understanding of both the unity and diversity of life’s processes and adaptations. With this understanding, we become ever more aware of our interdependence with the vast diversity of organisms with which we share planet Earth.
BIOLOGY: THE STUDENT-FRIENDLY BIOLOGY BOOK
We want beginning students to experience learning biology as an exciting journey of discovery. In the ninth edition of Biology, we explore Earth’s diverse organisms, their remarkable adaptations to the environment, and their evolutionary and ecological relationships. We present the workings of science and the contributions of scientists whose discoveries not only expand our knowledge of biology but also help shape and protect the future of our planet. Biology provides insight into what science is, how scientists work, what scientists have contributed, and how scientific knowledge affects daily life. Since the first edition of Biology, we have worked to present the principles of biology in an integrated way that is accurate, interesting, and conceptually accessible to students. In this ninth edition of Biology, we continue this tradition. We also continue to present biology in an inquiry-based framework. Some professors interpret inquiry as a learning method that takes place in the laboratory as students perform experiments. Laboratory research is certainly an integral part of inquiry-based learning. But inquiry is also a way of learning in which the student actively pursues knowledge outside the laboratory. In Biology, we have always presented the history of scientific advances, including scientific debates, to help students understand that science is a process, that is, a field of investigative inquiry, as well as a body of knowledge (the product of inquiry). In the ninth edition of Biology, we make a concerted effort to further integrate inquiry-based learning into the textbook with the introduction of new features and the expansion of several others (discussed in the following sections). Throughout the text, we stimulate interest by relating concepts to experiences within the student’s frame of reference. By helping students make such connections, we facilitate their mastery of general concepts. We hope the combined effect of an engaging writing style and interesting features will motivate and excite students in their study of biology.
THE SOLOMON/BERG/MARTIN LEARNING SYSTEM
In the ninth edition, we have continued to refi ne our highly successful Learning System. This system provides the student with the learning strategies needed to integrate biological concepts and to demonstrate mastery of these concepts. Learning biology is challenging because the subject of biology is filled with so many new terms and so many facts that must be integrated into the framework of general biological principles. To help students focus on important principles and concepts, we provide Learning Outcomes for the course and Learning Objectives for each major section of every chapter. At the end of each section, we provide Review Questions based on the Learning Objectives so students can assess their level of understanding of the material presented in the section. At the end of each chapter, we include a Summary: Focus on Learning Objectives that is organized around the Learning Objectives. The Summary is followed by Test Your Understanding questions (including multiple-choice exercises and diagram labeling) and Critical Thinking questions. Throughout the book, students are directed to CengageNOW, a powerful online diagnostic tool that helps students assess their study needs and master the chapter objectives. Aft er taking a pretest on CengageNOW, students receive feedback based on their answers as well as a Personalized Study Plan with links to animations and other resources keyed to their specific learning needs. Selected illustrations in the text are also keyed to Animated figures in CengageNOW.
Pedagogical Features Our Learning System includes numerous learning strategies that help students increase their success: NEW• An updated and expanded art program reinforces concepts discussed in the text, and presents complex processes in clear steps. This edition expands the number of Key Experiment figures, which encourage students to evaluate investigative approaches that scientists have taken. Key Experiment figures emphasize the scientific process in both classic and modern research; examples include Figures 8-9, 20-13, 22-9, 27-11, and 52-21. Also expanded in this edition are Key Point figures, in which important concepts are stated in process diagrams of complex topics; examples include Figures 1-11, 6-6, 8-2, 29-4, and 32-7. Many of the Key Point figures have numbered parts that show sequences of events in biological processes or life cycles. Numerous photographs, both alone and combined with line art, help students grasp concepts by connecting the “real” to the “ideal.” The line art uses features such as orientation icons to help the student put the detailed figures into the broader context. We use symbols and colors consistently throughout the book to help students connect concepts. For example, the same four colors and shapes are used throughout the book to identify guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. Similarly, the same colors are used consistently in illustrations and tables to indicate specific clades of organisms. NEW• Research Method fi gures describe why biologists use a particular method and explain how the method is executed. Examples include Figures 12-6, 15-5, and 23-11. NEW• Inquiring About boxes explore issues of special relevance to students, such as the effects of smoking, how traumatic experiences affect the body, and breast cancer. Th ese boxes also provide a forum for discussing some interesting topics in more detail, such as the smallest ancient humans, ancient plants and coal formation, hydrothermal vent communities, and declining amphibian populations. A list of • Key Concepts at the beginning of each chapter provides a chapter overview and helps the student focus on important principles discussed in the chapter. Learning Objectives• at the beginning of each major section in the chapter indicate, in behavioral terms, what the student must do to demonstrate mastery of the material in that section. Each major section of the chapter is followed by a series of • Review questions that assess comprehension by asking the student to describe, explain, compare, contrast, or illustrate important concepts. The Review questions are based on the section Learning Objectives. Concept Statement Subheads• introduce sections, previewing and summarizing the key idea or ideas to be discussed in that section. Sequence Summaries• within the text simplify and summarize information presented in paragraph form. For example, paragraphs describing blood circulation through the body or the steps by which cells take in certain materials are followed by a Sequence Summary listing the sequence of structures or steps. Numerous • tables, many illustrated, help the student organize and summarize material presented in the text. Many tables are color-coded. • A Summary: Focus on Learning Objectives at the end of each chapter is organized around the chapter Learning Objectives. This summary provides a review of the material, and because selected key terms are boldfaced in the summary, students learn vocabulary words within the context of related concepts. End-of-chapter questions provide students with the oppor-• tunity to evaluate their understanding of the material in the chapter. Test Your Understanding consists of multiple-choice questions, some of which are based on the recall of important terms, whereas others challenge students to integrate their knowledge. Answers to the Test Your Understanding questions are provided in Appendix E. Thought-provoking Critical Th inking questions encourage the student to apply the concepts just learned to new situations or to make connections among important concepts. Each chapter has one or more Evolution Link questions in the Critical Thinking section. Many chapters contain one or more Analyzing Data questions that require students to actively interpret experimental data presented in the chapter. NEW• Many Critical Thinking sections also include one or more Science, Technology, and Society questions. The • Glossary at the end of the book, the most comprehensive glossary found in any biology text, provides precise definitions of terms. The Glossary is especially useful because it is extensively cross-referenced and includes pronunciations for many terms. Th e vertical blue bar along the margin facilitates rapid access to the Glossary. The companion website also includes glossary flash cards with audio pronunciation
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