Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 7th Edition
This is an introductory textbook for a first course in applied statistics and probability for undergraduatestudents in engineering and the physical or chemical sciences. These individuals play a significant role in designing and developing new products and manufacturing systems and processes, and they also improve existing systems. Statistical methods are an important tool in these activities because they provide the engineer with both descriptive and analytical methods for dealing with the variability in observed data. Although many of the methods we present are fundamental to statistical analysis in other disciplines, such as business and management, the life sciences, and the social sciences, we have elected to focus on an engineering-oriented audience. We believe that this approach will best serve students in engineering and the chemical/physical sciences and will allow them to concentrate on the many applications of statistics in these disciplines. We have worked hard to ensure that our examples and exercises are engineering- and science-based, and in almost all cases we have used examples of real data—either taken from a published source or based on our consulting experiences.
We believe that engineers in all disciplines should take at least one course in statistics. Unfortunately, because of other requirements, most engineers will only take one statistics course. This book can be used for a single course, although we have provided enough material for two courses in the hope that more students will see the important applications of statistics in their everyday work and elect a second course. We believe that this book will also serve as a useful reference. We have retained the relatively modest mathematical level of the first five editions. We have found that engineering students who have completed one or two semesters of calculus and have some knowledge of matrix algebra should have no difficulty reading all of the text. It is our intent to give the reader an understanding of the methodology and how to apply it, not the mathematical theory. We have made many enhancements in this edition, including reorganizing and rewriting major portions of the book and adding a number of new exercises.
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
Perhaps the most common criticism of engineering statistics texts is that they are too long. Both instructors and students complain that it is impossible to cover all of the topics in the book in one or even two terms. For authors, this is a serious issue because there is great variety in both the content and level of these courses, and the decisions about what material to delete without limiting the value of the text are not easy. Decisions about which topics to include in this edition were made based on a survey of instructors.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to the field of statistics and how engineers use statistical methodology as part of the engineering problem-solving process. This chapter also introduces the reader to some engineering applications of statistics, including building empirical models, designing engineering experiments, and monitoring manufacturing processes. These topics are discussed in more depth in subsequent chapters.
Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 cover the basic concepts of probability, discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, expected values, joint probability distributions, and independence. We have given a reasonably complete treatment of these topics but have avoided many of the mathematical or more theoretical details. Chapter 6 begins the treatment of statistical methods with random sampling; data summary and description techniques, including stem-and-leaf plots, histograms, box plots, and probability plotting; and several types of time series plots. Chapter 7 discusses sampling distributions, the central limit theorem, and point estimation of parameters. This chapter also introduces some of the important properties of estimators, the method of maximum likelihood, the method of moments, and Bayesian estimation.
Chapter 8 discusses interval estimation for a single sample. Topics included are confidence intervals for means, variances or standard deviations, proportions, prediction intervals, and tolerance intervals. Chapter 9 discusses hypothesis tests for a single sample. Chapter 10 presents tests and confidence intervals for two samples. This material has been extensively rewritten and reorganized. There is detailed information and examples of methods for determining appropriate sample sizes.We want the student to become familiar with how these techniques are used to solve real-world engineering problems and to get some understanding of the concepts behind them.We give a logical, heuristic development of the procedures rather than a formal, mathematical one. We have also included some material on nonparametric methods in these chapters.
Chapters 11 and 12 present simple and multiple linear regression including model adequacy checking and regression model diagnostics and an introduction to logistic regression. We use matrix algebra throughout the multiple regression material (Chapter 12) because it is the only easy way to understand the concepts presented. Scalar arithmetic presentations of multiple regression are awkward at best, and we have found that undergraduate engineers are exposed to enough matrix algebra to understand the presentation of this material.
Chapters 13 and 14 deal with single- and multifactor experiments, respectively. The notions of randomization, blocking, factorial designs, interactions, graphical data analysis, and fractional factorials are emphasized. Chapter 15 introduces statistical quality control, emphasizing the control chart and the fundamentals of statistical process control.
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