Animal Diversity 7th Edition

Animal Diversity 7th Edition PDF

Author: Hickman Jr. Emeritus, Cleveland P

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education


Publish Date: October 17, 2014

ISBN-10: 0073524255

Pages: 512

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

Animal Diversity is tailored for the restrictive requirements of a one-semester or one-quarter course in zoology, and is appropriate for both nonscience and science majors of varying backgrounds. This seventh edition of Animal Diversity presents a survey of the animal kingdom with emphasis on diversity, evolutionary relationships, functional adaptations, and environmental interactions.

Organization and Coverage

The sixteen survey chapters of animal diversity are prefaced by four chapters presenting the principles of evolution, ecology, taxonomy, and animal architecture. Throughout this revision, we updated references and worked to streamline the writing.

Chapter 1 begins with a brief explanation of the scientifi c method—what science is (and what it is not)—and then introduces evolutionary principles. Following a historical account of Charles Darwin’s life and discoveries, we present the fi ve major components of Darwin’s evolutionary theory, the important challenges and revisions to his theory, and an assessment of its current scientifi c status. This approach refl ects our understanding that Darwinism is a composite theory whose component parts guide active research and can be modifi ed by new discoveries. It also prepares the student to dismiss the arguments of creationists who misconstrue scientifi c challenges to Darwinism as contradictions to the validity of organic evolution. The chapter summarizes the major principles of molecular genetics, population genetics, and macroevolution.

Chapter 2 explains the principles of ecology, with emphasis on populations, community ecology, and variations in the life-history strategies of natural populations. The treatment includes discussions of niche, population growth and its regulation, limits to growth, competition, energy fl ow, nutrient cycles, and extinction.

Chapter 3, on animal architecture, is a short but important chapter that describes the organization and development of the body plans that distinguish major groups of animals. This chapter includes a picture essay of tissue types and a section explaining important developmental processes responsible for the evolutionary diversifi cation of the bilateral animals.

Chapter 4 treats taxonomy and phylogeny of animals. We present a brief history of how animal diversity has been organized for systematic study, emphasizing current use of Darwin’s theory of common descent as the major principle underlying animal taxonomy. Our summary of continuing controversies over concepts of species and higher taxa includes discussion of how alternative taxonomic philosophies guide our study of evolution. We give special attention to phylogenetic systematics (cladistics) and the interpretation of cladograms. Chapter 4 also emphasizes that current issues in ecology and conservation biology depend upon our taxonomic system.

The sixteen survey chapters provide comprehensive, current, and thoroughly researched coverage of the animal phyla. We emphasize the unifying phylogenetic, architectural, and functional themes of each group, and illustrate them with detailed coverage of representative forms. Each chapter includes succinct statements of the diagnostic characteristics and major subgroups of the focal taxa. Discussions of phylogenetic relationships take a cladistic viewpoint, with cladograms showing the structure of each group’s history and the origin of the principal shared derived characters. Phylogenetic trees add temporal evolutionary hypotheses to the cladistic analyses.

Changes in the Seventh Edition

We continue in updated form the major new structural feature of the previous edition: a cladogram depicting phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa appears in the inside front cover and serves to order our coverage of animal diversity in Chapters 5–20. The reformatted cladogram from the inside front cover appears in small form at the start of each taxonomic chapter, with the chapter’s taxonomic coverage highlighted on it.

The seventh edition includes an unusually large overhaul of our photographic illustrations to maintain consistently high quality in our depiction of animal diversity. Recent revision of the standard geological timescale has required many updates in our coverage of the historical ages of animal taxa and the timing of major evolutionary events. We have updated throughout the book the major taxa recognized within animal phyla and the numbers of species recognized within them. In many cases, newly recognized taxa do not carry the formerly mandatory Linnean ranks. We retain Linnean ranks whereverpossible, but our readers must become accustomed to more widespread usage of a rank-free taxonomy. Also added throughout the book are references to new primary literature and to updated textbooks.

The process of scientifi c inquiry (Chapter 1) is more fully illustrated with zoological examples. We introduce the contrast between ultimate versus proximate causes as the primary distinction between comparative methodologies and experimental ones. Our revised coverage of Lamarck’s evolutionary theory illustrates why inheritance of acquired characters seemed to be the simplest explanation of adaptation, and how refutation of its conjectures led scientists to better evolutionary hypotheses. We expand coverage of industrial melanism in moths to illustrate fundamental principles of scientifi c inquiry, and to show how Darwin’s theories of gradualism and natural selection are logically and empirically separable.

The latter part of Chapter 1 now includes brief conceptual coverage of gene expression to enable better understanding of evolutionary developmental topics in Chapter 3. We consolidate here related material on Mendelian genetics and population genetics, using protein polymorphism to illustrate measurement of allelic frequencies in populations. Our aim is to provide access to new discoveries in evolutionary developmental biology, conservation biology, and molecular phylogenetic analysis without burdening the introductory treatment with excessive detail. We clarify, for example, the use of inbreeding of captive animals to eliminate deleterious recessive traits from endangered species.

In Chapter 2, we revise our diagram and explanation of contrasting survivorship curves and their ecological interpretations. We expand our coverage of demographic changes that typically occur as human populations become industrialized. Updated information appears on human population growth and the earth’s carrying capacity for humans. We systematically add Latin names for animal species used in ecological experiments and examples. Comments from an expert reviewer have helped us to make more precise our discussion of ecological resource partitioning, and the relationship between food chains and food webs. We continue from Chapter 1 our emphasis on process of science by updating our coverage of mimicry; new data have revised our interpretations of some hypotheses of Batesian versus Müllerian mimicry. We expand our coverage of biodiversity and extinction at the end of the chapter, and include in Chapter 18 a new essay on the ecological consequences of introduced pythons in southern Florida.

Animal architecture, development and biomechanics (Chapter 3) receive extended treatment through various additions to the chapters on individual taxa. A new opening essay for Chapter 6 discusses the similarities between sponge cell layers and the tissues of other animals. We add the astonishingly complex harp sponge, Chondrocladia lyra, to our discussion of Porifera. This deep-sea sponge is surprising in its morphology, mode of feeding, and reproductive biology. We also add a fi gure of the morphology of a hexactinellid sponge. Chapter 7 includes new discussion of muscle evolution and the nature of true muscles in cnidarians and ctenophores. Chapters 15–16 present new information on hagfi sh reproduction and embryology, including the discovery that some hagfi shes do have vertebrae. Substantial changes to the section on bird fl ight include better explanations of how a bird’s wing generates lift and how thrust is produced by fl apping fl ight. Classifi cation of wing types now follows the scheme from the Cornell bird laboratory.

Chapter 4 features expanded coverage of the contrasting concepts of species, including their partial unifi cation by the increasingly popular “general lineage concept” of species. A new boxed essay illustrates common sources of diffi culty in testing the hypothesis that two or more populations observed in nature constitute the same versus different species. Material formerly presented in Chapter 4 on the contrast between protostomes and deuterostomes is now consolidated with coverage of evolutionary developmental biology in Chapter 3.

Brief Contents

1 Science of Zoology and Evolution
of Animal Diversity, 1
2 Animal Ecology, 40
3 Animal Architecture, 63
4 Taxonomy and Phylogeny
of Animals , 86
5 Unicellular Eukaryotes, 105
6 Sponges : Phylum Porifera, 130
7 Cnidarians and Ctenophores , 142
8 Acoelomorpha, Platyzoa, and Mesozoa: Flatworms,
Gastrotrichs, Gnathiferans, and Mesozoans, 167
9 Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa: Cycliophora,
Entoprocta, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda,
Phoronida, and Nemertea, 188
10 Molluscs, 199
11 Annelids and Allied Taxa, 226
12 Smaller Ecdysozoans , 245
13 Arthropods, 258
14 Chaetognaths, Echinoderms,
and Hemichordates, 304
15 Vertebrate Beginnings:
The Chordates, 325
16 Fishes, 341
17 The Early Tetrapods and Modern
Amphibians, 365
18 Amniote Origins and Nonavian
Reptiles , 380
19 Birds , 400
20 Mammals, 424
General References, 448
Glossary, 450
Credits, 472
Index, 474

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