An Introduction to Physical Science 14th Edition
Science and technology are the driving forces of change in our world today. They revolutionize all aspects of our lives, including communication, transportation, medical care, the environment, politics, and education. To understand and fully participate in this transformation, it is important that today’s students advance their knowledge of science. In addition to increasing their understanding of the principles of science, it is imperative that students know how science is truly conducted, and when, where, and to what science is applied. Equipped with this knowledge, they can better adapt to their environment and make informed decisions that ultimately affect their lives and the lives of others.
The primary goal of the fourteenth edition of An Introduction to Physical Science is in keeping with that of previous editions: to stimulate students’ interest in science and to build a solid foundation of general knowledge in the physical sciences. Additionally, we continue to present the content in such a way that students develop the critical reasoning and problem-solving skills that are needed in our ever-changing technological world. An Introduction to Physical Science, Fourteenth Edition, is intended for an introductory course for college nonscience majors. The five divisions of physical science are covered: physics, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, and geology. Each division of physical science is discussed in the context of real-world examples. The textbook is readily adaptable to either a one- or two-semester course, or a two- to three-quarter course, allowing the instructor to select topics of his or her choice.
One of the outstanding features of this textbook continues to be its emphasis on fundamental concepts. These concepts are built on as we progress through the chapters. For example, Chapter 1, which introduces the concepts of measurement, is followed by chapters on the basic topics of physics: motion, force, energy, heat, wave motion, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics, and nuclear physics. This foundation in physics is useful in developing the principles of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, and geology in the chapters that follow. We hope that this will lead to more students choosing careers in the sciences, engineering, and mathematics.
Organizational Updates in the Fourteenth Edition
The fourteenth edition of An Introduction to Physical Science retains its 24-chapter format. Each chapter contains a new Did You Know? feature identifying especially interesting science facts to engage a student’s interest in the material they are preparing to read. You will also still find the Conceptual Questions and Answers, highlighting important material and important mathematical concepts as well. All Highlight boxes and Conceptual Question and Answer boxes are now numbered within each chapter and can be referenced in the Chapter Outline. All of the chapters contain many new photographs that are relatable to the current physical sciences student.
Chapter 2 has a new Highlight, “Terminal Velocity—Don’t Fail Me Now!” showcasing Felix Baumgartner’s jump from the stratosphere. Chapter 5 has new text on thermometers and their applications, including an accompanying Conceptual Question and Answer. There is also a new Highlight, “Human Body Temperature,” discussing “normal” human body temperature, as well as its extremes. Chapter 10 features a new Highlight, “Pebble-Bed Gas Reactor,” discussing possibly the next generation of nuclear reactors and how they work. Section 10.8 on Elementary Particles has been amended to include the Higgs boson and the resulting Nobel Prize award to Peter Higgs.
Chapter 11 features a new Highlight, “Are There Really 98 Naturally Occurring Elements?” to better explain this question to students. Chapter 12 has a new table, “Predicted Molecular Shapes Using VSEPR,” summarizing various molecular geometries.
Chapter 14 features a new discussion on 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, including a new Highlight, “Octane Rating.”
Chapter 14 has a new Conceptual Question and Answer to clarify 3-D coordinates and some new text on geographic poles. Chapter 15 also has a new Highlight, “Time Traveler,” to explain the International Date Line. Chapter 16 contains updates to information on Mars according to recent explorations, and Chapter 17 is also updated with recent discoveries, especially relating to the moons of Saturn and Pluto, and features the latest photo of the nucleus of a comet. Chapter 18 contains astronomical updates, including changes to Hubble’s constant and the estimated age of the universe. Chapter 19 has a new Highlight, “Human Body Pressures: Blood and Intraocular,” as part of the discussion of pressure measurements. Chapter 20 contains new material on recent meteorological events and a discussion of the hurricane rating system. Chapter 21 has new information on the interior structure of the Earth based on recent studies, as well as a revised explanation of the forces involved in plate tectonics. Chapter 22 has a new Conceptual Question and Answer on cutting diamonds and features an updated figure with an expanded view of the rock cycle. Chapter 24 has a few updates on the geologic time calendar.
Math Coverage and Support
Each discipline is treated both descriptively and quantitatively. To make the fourteenth edition user-friendly for students who are not mathematically inclined, we continue to introduce concepts to be treated mathematically as follows. First, the concept is defined, as briefly as possible, using words. The definition is then presented, where applicable, as an equation in word form. And, finally, the concept is expressed in symbolic notation.
The level of mathematics in the textbook continues to be no greater than that of general high school math. Appendixes A through G provide a review of the math skills needed to deal with the mathematical exercises in this textbook. It may be helpful for students to begin their study by reading through these seven appendixes. This will help identify and remediate any mathematical weaknesses and thereby build confidence and ability for working the mathematical exercises in the textbook. Practice Exercises for mathematical concepts and skills appear in Cengage Learning’s CourseMate. Assistance is also offered to students by means of in-text worked Examples and followup Confidence Exercises (with answers at the end of the book). However, the relative emphasis, whether descriptive or quantitative, is left to the discretion of the instructor. For instance, the end-of-chapter material may be selected according to the instructor’s preferences. To maintain a more descriptive approach, the Exercises may be omitted, and the other end-of-chapter sections may be used for assignments.
Chapter 1 Measurement 1
Chapter 2 Motion 27
Chapter 3 Force and Motion 51
Chapter 4 Work and Energy 81
Chapter 5 Temperature and Heat 108
Chapter 6 Waves and Sound 141
Chapter 7 Optics and Wave Effects 165
Chapter 8 Electricity and Magnetism 199
Chapter 9 Atomic Physics 235
Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics 265
Chapter 11 The Chemical Elements 305
Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding 333
Chapter 13 Chemical Reactions 363
Chapter 14 Organic Chemistry 394
Chapter 15 Place and Time 423
Chapter 16 The Solar System 451
Chapter 17 Moons and Small Solar System Bodies 482
Chapter 18 The Universe 511
Chapter 19 The Atmosphere 546
Chapter 20 Atmospheric Effects 579
Chapter 21 Structural G eology and P late Tectonics 615
Chapter 22 Minerals, Rocks, and Volcanoes 646
Chapter 23 Surface Processes 678
Chapter 24 Geologic Time 704
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