An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications 3rd Edition
The third edition retains the same primary objectives as previous editions: fi rst, to present basic combustion concepts using relatively simple and easy-to-understand analyses; and second, to introduce a wide variety of practical applications that motivate or relate to the various theoretical concepts. The overarching goal is to provide a textbook that is useful for both formal undergraduate and introductory graduate study in mechanical engineering and related fi elds, and informal study by practicing engineers.
The overarching theme of the revisions in this edition is the addition and updating of specific topics related to energy use; protection of the environment, including climate change; and fuels. The largest single change is the addition of a new chapter dedicated to fuels. Highlights of these changes and a brief discussion of the new chapter follow.
Chapter 1 includes more detailed information on energy sources and use and electricity generation and use. Chapter 4 contains new sections devoted to reduced mechanisms and to catalysis and heterogeneous reactions. As detailed chemical mechanisms for combustion and pollutant formation have grown in complexity, the need for robust reduced mechanisms has grown. Catalytic exhaust aftertreatment has become the standard approach to controlling emissions from spark-ignition engines and is making inroads for controlling diesel engine emissions. Catalytic combustion has also been of interest in some applications. These factors were the drivers for the new sections of Chapter 4. Changes in Chapter 5 refl ect the progress that has been made in developing detailed mechanisms for realistic transportation fuels. Other changes include updating the detailed methane combustion kinetics (GRI Mech) to include detailed nitrogen chemistry and the addition of a major new section presenting a reduced mechanism for methane combustion and nitric oxide formation. Changes to Chapter 9 refl ect advances in both experimentation and modeling related to laminar nonpremixed fl ames. Chapter 10 has been updated to refl ect current practice in the design and operation of gas-turbine combustors; Chapter 10 also cites recent droplet combustion studies conducted in space using the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Revisions to Chapter 12 refl ect the latest advances in understanding turbulent premixed combustion. Similarly, Chapter 13 has been revised to include recent fi ndings on soot formation and destruction and provides an expanded and updated discussion of fl ame radiation from turbulent nonpremixed flames. Several new fi gures and more than 30 new references complement these two chapters.
The title of Chapter 15 has been changed from “Pollutant Emissions” to “Emissions” to refl ect that greenhouse gas emissions, as well as pollutant emissions, are both important combustion considerations. Many changes and/or additions have been made to this chapter. These include, but are not limited to, the following: an expanded section on human health effects of particulate matter to refl ect new fi ndings; a revised section on NOx emissions to refl ect current understanding of nitrogen chemistry; a discussion of the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine; an interesting development for emission control arising since the previous edition; an updated discussion of catalytic converters for spark-ignition engines; discussion of the emission of particulate matter from both gasoline and diesel engines focusing on ultrafi ne particles, together with a greatly expanded discussion of particulate matter and its emission control; the introduction of EPA emission factors; additions and revisions to discussions of NOx and SOx controls; and the addition of a new section discussing greenhouse gases. Seventy-three new references complement the revisions to Chapter 15.
Concerns over global warming, environmental degradation, and national energy independence, among others, have resulted in a renewed interest in fuels. With this interest comes the need for basic information on fuels. The addition of Chapter 17, Fuels, is intended to fulfi ll this need. In this chapter, we discuss naming conventions and the molecular structures of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds, followed by a discussion of what properties make a good fuel. Conventional fuels, which include various gasolines, diesel fuels, heating oils, aviation fuels, natural gas, and coal are discussed, as are several alternative fuels. Examples here include biodiesel, ethanol (either corn-based or cellulosic), Fischer-Tropsch liquids from coal or biomass, hydrogen, and others. This new chapter contains eight figures and 22 tables, along with 83 references.
The computer software, previously supplied on a diskette, is now available as a download from the publisher’s website at www.mhhe.com/turns3e. The website also contains the instructor’s solutions manual and image library.
The author hopes that this new edition will continue to serve well those who have used previous editions and that the changes provided will enhance the usefulness of the book.
Stephen R. Turns
University Park, PA
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