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5 Steps to a 5: AP Chemistry 2019



5 Steps to a 5: AP Chemistry 2019

Author: John T. Moore and Richard H. Langley

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Educatio

Genres:

Publish Date: July 16, 2018

ISBN-10: 1260122700

Pages: 321

File Type: EPub

Language: English

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Book Preface

The fact that you are reading this preface suggests that you will be taking the AP exam in chemistry. The AP Chemistry exam is constantly evolving and so this guide has evolved. We have updated the book to match the new AP Chemistry exam. The new exam has an emphasis on sets—a series of questions that refer to the same given information, along with changes in the free-response portion.

The AP Chemistry exam certainly isn’t easy, but the rewards are worth it—college credit and the satisfaction of a job well done. You will have to work and study hard to do well, but we will, through this book, help you to master the material and get ready for the exam.

Both of us have many years of experience in teaching introductory general chemistry at the university level. John Moore is the author of Chemistry for Dummies, and he and Richard “Doc” Langley have also written Chemistry for the Utterly Confused, a guide for college/high school students. Each of us has certain skills and experiences that will be of special help in presenting the material in this book. Richard has also taught high school science, and John has years of experience teaching chemistry to both public school teachers and students. Both of us have been graders for the AP Exam chemistry free-response questions for years and have firsthand knowledge of how the exam is graded and scored. We have tried not only to make the material understandable but also to present the problems in the format of the AP Chemistry exam. By faithfully working the problems you will increase your familiarity with the exam format, so that when the time comes to take the exam there will be no surprises.

Use this book in addition to your regular chemistry text. We have outlined three different study programs to prepare you for the exam. If you choose the yearlong program, use it as you are taking your AP Chemistry course. It will provide additional problems in the AP format. If you choose one of the other two programs, use it with your chemistry textbook also; but you may need to lean a little more on this review book. Either way, if you put in the time and effort, you will do well.

Now it’s time to start. Read the Introduction: The Five-Step Program; Chapter 1, What You Need to Know About the AP Chemistry Exam; and Chapter 2, How to Plan Your Time. Then take the Diagnostic Exam in Chapter 3. Your score will show how well you understand the material right now and point out weak areas that may need a little extra attention. Use the review exams at the end of the chapters to check your comprehension. Also, pay attention to the free-response questions. That is where you can really shine, and they are worth almost as much as the multiple-choice part. Use the Rapid Reviews to brush up on the important points in the chapters. Just before taking the exam, review the section on avoiding “stupid” mistakes at the back of this book. Keep this book handy—it is going to be your friend for the next few weeks or months.

Good luck: but remember that luck favors the prepared mind.

CONTENTS

Preface

Acknowledgments

Introduction: The Five-Step Program

STEP 1     Set Up Your Study Program

1   What You Need to Know About the AP Chemistry Exam

Background of the Advanced Placement Program

Who Writes the AP Chemistry Exam?

The AP Grades and Who Receives Them

Reasons for Taking the AP Chemistry Exam

Questions Frequently Asked About the AP Chemistry Exam

2   How to Plan Your Time

Three Approaches to Preparing for the AP Chemistry Exam

Calendar for Each Plan

STEP 2     Determine Your Test Readiness

3   Take a Diagnostic Exam

Getting Started: The Diagnostic Exam

Answers and Explanations

Scoring and Interpretation

STEP 3     Develop Strategies for Success

4   How to Approach Each Question Type

Multiple-Choice Questions

Free-Response Questions

STEP 4     Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

5   Basics

Units and Measurements

Dimensional Analysis—the Factor Label Method

The States of Matter

The Structure of the Atom

Periodic Table

Oxidation Numbers

Nomenclature Overview

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

6   Reactions and Periodicity

AP Exam Format

General Aspects of Chemical Reactions and Equations

General Properties of Aqueous Solutions

Precipitation Reactions

Oxidation–Reduction Reactions

Coordination Compounds

Acid–Base Reactions

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

7   Stoichiometry

Moles and Molar Mass

Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas

Reaction Stoichiometry

Limiting Reactants

Percent Yield

Molarity and Solution Calculations

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

8   Gases

Kinetic Molecular Theory

Gas Law Relationships

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

9   Thermodynamics

Calorimetry

Laws of Thermodynamics

Products Minus Reactants

Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

10   Spectroscopy, Light, and Electrons

The Nature of Light

Wave Properties of Matter

Atomic Spectra

Atomic Orbitals

Photoelectron (Photoemission) Spectroscopy (PES)

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

11   Bonding

Lewis Electron-Dot Structures

Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Molecular Geometry—VSEPR

Valence Bond Theory

Molecular Orbital Theory

Resonance

Bond Length, Strength, and Magnetic Properties

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

12   Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces

Structures and Intermolecular Forces

The Liquid State

The Solid State

Phase Diagrams

Relationship of Intermolecular Forces to Phase Changes

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

13   Solutions and Colligative Properties

Concentration Units

Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

Colligative Properties

Colloids

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Questions

Answers and Explanations

Rapid Review

14   Kinetics

Rates of Reaction

Integrated Rate Laws

Activation Energy

Reaction Mechanisms

Catalysts

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

15   Equilibrium

Equilibrium Expressions

Le Châtelier’s Principle

Acid–Base Equilibrium

Buffers

Titration Equilibria

Solubility Equilibria

Other Equilibria

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

16   Electrochemistry

Redox Reactions

Electrochemical Cells

Quantitative Aspects of Electrochemistry

Nernst Equation

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

17   Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Stability

Nuclear Decay Calculations

Mass–Energy Relationships

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

18   Organic Chemistry

Alkanes

Structural Isomerism

Common Functional Groups

Macromolecules

Experiments

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Questions

Answers and Explanations

Rapid Review

19   Experimental Investigations

Experiment 1: Spectroscopy

Experiment 2: Spectrophotometry

Experiment 3: Gravimetric Analysis

Experiment 4: Titration

Experiment 5: Chromatography

Experiment 6: Determination of the Type of Bonding in Solid Samples

Experiment 7: Stoichiometry

Experiment 8: Redox Titration

Experiment 9: Chemical and Physical Changes

Experiment 10: Kinetics

Experiment 11: Rate Laws

Experiment 12: Calorimetry

Experiment 13: Chemical Equilibrium—Le Châtelier’s Principle

Experiment 14: Acid–Base Titrations

Experiment 15: Buffer pH

Experiment 16: The Capacity of a Buffer

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Review Questions

Answers and Explanations

Free-Response Question

Answer and Explanation

Rapid Review

STEP 5     Build Your Test-Taking Confidence

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 1

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 1, Section I (Multiple Choice)

Answers and Explanations for Exam 1, Section 1 (Multiple Choice)

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 1, Section II (Free Response)

Answers and Explanations for Exam 1, Section II (Free Response)

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 2

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 2, Section I (Multiple Choice)

Answers and Explanations for Exam 2, Section 1 (Multiple Choice)

AP Chemistry Practice Exam 2, Section II (Free Response)

Answers and Explanations for Exam 2, Section II (Free Response)

Appendixes

SI Units

Balancing Redox Equations Using the Ion-Electron Method

Common Ions

Bibliography

Websites

Glossary

Avoiding “Stupid” Mistakes on the Free-Response Section

Exam Resources


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